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Defects in frataxin result in Friedreich ataxia, a genetic disease characterized by early onset of neurodegeneration, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes. Frataxin is a conserved mitochondrial protein that controls iron needed for iron-sulfur cluster assembly and heme synthesis and also detoxifies excess iron. Studies in vitro have shown that either monomeric or(More)
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive degenerative disease caused by insufficient expression of frataxin (FXN), a mitochondrial iron-binding protein required for Fe-S cluster assembly. The development of treatments to increase FXN levels in FRDA requires elucidation of the steps involved in the biogenesis of functional FXN. The FXN mRNA is(More)
Mitochondrial biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) is a vital process involving the delivery of elemental iron and sulfur to a scaffold protein via molecular interactions that are still poorly defined. Analysis of highly conserved components of the yeast ISC assembly machinery shows that the iron-chaperone, Yfh1, and the sulfur-donor complex,(More)
Fe-S clusters, essential cofactors needed for the activity of many different enzymes, are assembled by conserved protein machineries inside bacteria and mitochondria. As the architecture of the human machinery remains undefined, we co-expressed in Escherichia coli the following four proteins involved in the initial step of Fe-S cluster synthesis: FXN42-210(More)
Friedreich ataxia is an early-onset multisystemic disease linked to a variety of molecular defects in the nuclear gene FRDA. This gene normally encodes the iron-binding protein frataxin (FXN), which is critical for mitochondrial iron metabolism, global cellular iron homeostasis, and antioxidant protection. In most Friedreich ataxia patients, a large(More)
Early studies of the bacterial Fe-S cluster assembly system provided structural details for how the scaffold protein and the cysteine desulfurase interact. This work and additional work on the yeast and human systems elucidated a conserved mechanism for sulfur donation but did not provide any conclusive insights into the mechanism for iron delivery from the(More)
The biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters is a vital process involving the delivery of elemental iron and sulfur to scaffold proteins via molecular interactions that are still poorly defined. We reconstituted a stable, functional complex consisting of the iron donor, Yfh1 (yeast frataxin homologue 1), and the Fe-S cluster scaffold, Isu1, with 1:1 stoichiometry,(More)
We investigate a generalized Cauchy power-series expansion for the index of refraction of an n-type elemental semiconductor in the region of IR transparency. A plot of index versus photon energy squared should be very nearly linear if all absorptions lie above the transparent region. However, free carriers produce far-IR absorption, and the dispersive(More)
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