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Digital imaging has provided scientists with new opportunities to acquire and manipulate data using techniques that were difficult or impossible to employ in the past. Because digital images are easier to manipulate than film images, new problems have emerged. One growing concern in the scientific community is that digital images are not being handled with(More)
Arsenicals have commonly been seen to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to DNA damage and oxidative stress. At low levels, arsenicals still induce the formation of ROS, leading to DNA damage and protein alterations. UROtsa cells, an immortalized human urothelial cell line, were used to study the effects of arsenicals on the human bladder,(More)
The kidney is a known target organ for arsenic and is critical for both arsenic biotransformation and elimination. Previous studies have demonstrated that at high doses (ppm) inorganic arsenic is toxic to mitochondria primarily by affecting cellular respiration. However, the effect of inorganic arsenic on mitochondria after low level exposures is not known,(More)
Contour irregularity was mathematically evaluated using two different analytical shape factors: (1) "form factor" (FF), a conventional type of shape analysis formula defined by the formula 4 pi A/P2, and (2) the "PErimeter Ratio Before and After Smoothing" (PERBAS). PERBAS values are obtained by first "smoothing" a contour that contains one or more(More)
The present study provides experimental data which indicate that the neutrophil is ideal for studying programmed cell death or apoptosis in vitro. Neutrophils can be obtained from human peripheral blood in large numbers with minimal experimental manipulation and are easily separated from other leukocytes, providing nearly pure cell suspensions. The(More)
Six cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and 12 cases of Burkitt's-like lymphoma (BLL) were classified by using strict histologic and cytologic criteria. These cases were processed for electron microscopy and analyzed by using computerized image analysis techniques. Form factor (4 pi A/P2) was used to measure nuclear contour irregularity. The mean of the(More)
In the Photoshop for Dummies books, author Deke McClelland refers to the IMAGE SIZE dialog box as perhaps the most confusing window in Photoshop. The capability for creating artifacts by using this tool with a scientific image lead to one of the most important " rules " for digital imaging. Always perform image manipulations on a copy of the original image.(More)
Type IV nuclear bodies are classified as true intranuclear inclusions that ultrastructurally contain numerous densely packed 20- to 30-nm osmiophilic granules surrounded by a microfibrillar cortex. In the present study, we have found statistically significant ultrastructural differences in the frequency and size of type IV nuclear bodies in the in vitro(More)