Douglas V. Dolfi

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Chronic infections strain the regenerative capacity of antiviral T lymphocyte populations, leading to failure in long-term immunity. The cellular and molecular events controlling this regenerative capacity, however, are unknown. We found that two distinct states of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells exist in chronically infected mice and humans. Differential(More)
CD8(+) T cells in chronic viral infections such as HIV develop functional defects including loss of interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion and decreased proliferative potential that are collectively termed 'exhaustion'. Exhausted T cells express increased amounts of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), that contribute to impaired(More)
The prevailing paradigm of T lymphocyte control of viral replication is that the protective capacity of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is directly proportional to the number of functions they can perform, with IL-2 production capacity considered critical. Having recently defined rapid perforin upregulation as a novel effector function of antigen-specific(More)
PURPOSE Immunotherapy using vaccines or adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is limited by T-cell functional inactivation within the solid tumor microenvironment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar tumor-induced inhibition occurred with genetically modified cytotoxic T cells expressing chimeric antigen(More)
Aged individuals have increased morbidity and mortality following influenza and other viral infections, despite previous exposure or vaccination. Mouse and human studies suggest increased senescence and/or exhaustion of influenza virus-specific CD8 T cells with advanced age. However, neither the relationship between senescence and exhaustion nor the(More)
The role of costimulation has previously been confined to the very early stages of the CD8+ T cell response. In this study, we demonstrate the requirement for CD27 costimulation during the later phase, but not programming of the primary CD8+ T cell response to influenza virus and reveal a novel mechanism of action for CD27 costimulation. CD27 signals,(More)
Although much is known about the initiation of immune responses, much less is known about what controls the effector phase. CD8(+) T cell responses are believed to be programmed in lymph nodes during priming without any further contribution by dendritic cells (DCs) and Ag. In this study, we report the requirement for DCs, Ag, and CD28 costimulation during(More)
Oral inoculation of infants with a vaccine that contains simian-human reassortant rotaviruses has been found to be a rare cause of intussusception. Because intussusception can be associated with enlargement of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, we studied the capacity of simian-human and bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses to cause lymphoid hypertrophy and(More)
Although the requirement of CD28 and CD27 costimulation has been clearly demonstrated during primary CD8+ T cell responses and this costimulation acts by providing proliferation and survival cues to naive CD8+ T cells, a number of questions also arise from these studies. Is the requirement for CD28 and CD27 costimulation restricted to the initiation of the(More)
Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic infections impair immune responses to unrelated pathogens and vaccines. The underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear and distinguishing effects on priming versus development of immunological memory has been challenging. We investigated whether bystander chronic infections impact differentiation of memory(More)