Douglas S Kwon

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Dendritic cells (DC) capture microorganisms that enter peripheral mucosal tissues and then migrate to secondary lymphoid organs, where they present these in antigenic form to resting T cells and thus initiate adaptive immune responses. Here, we describe the properties of a DC-specific C-type lectin, DC-SIGN, that is highly expressed on DC present in mucosal(More)
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to the plasma membrane of target cells is mediated by interaction of its envelope glycoprotein, gp120, with CD4 and appropriate chemokine receptors. gp120 additionally binds to DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed on immature dendritic cells. This interaction does not result in viral fusion, but instead(More)
Murine models indicate that interleukin-10 (IL-10) can suppress viral clearance, and interventional blockade of IL-10 activity has been proposed to enhance immunity in chronic viral infections. Increased IL-10 levels have been observed during HIV infection and IL-10 blockade has been shown to enhance T-cell function in some HIV-infected subjects. However,(More)
CD8+ T cells in chronic viral infections such as HIV develop functional defects including loss of interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion and decreased proliferative potential that are collectively termed 'exhaustion'. Exhausted T cells express increased amounts of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), that contribute to impaired(More)
A homozygous 24-bp deletion (Delta24) was found in the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) of 11 out of 15 red-capped mangabeys (RCMs), Cercocebus torquatus torquatus, both in Africa and in an American zoo. The CCR5 Delta24 defect encompassed eight amino acids in frame in the fourth transmembrane region. Unexpectedly, RCM-009, one of 11 homozygotes (Delta24CCR5/(More)
Functional defects in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses arise in chronic human viral infections, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. In mice, CD4 cell-mediated interleukin-21 (IL-21) production is necessary for the maintenance of CD8(+) T cell function and control of persistent viral infections. To investigate the potential role of IL-21 in(More)
Defining the T helper functions impaired by programmed death-1 (PD-1) is crucial for understanding its role in defective HIV control and determining the therapeutic potential of targeting this inhibitory pathway. We describe here the relationships among disease stage, levels of PD-1 expression, and reversibility of CD4 T-cell impairment. PD-L1 blockade in(More)
Colonization by Lactobacillus in the female genital tract is thought to be critical for maintaining genital health. However, little is known about how genital microbiota influence host immune function and modulate disease susceptibility. We studied a cohort of asymptomatic young South African women and found that the majority of participants had genital(More)
We have tested a panel of pediatric and adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates for the ability to employ the following proteins as coreceptors during viral entry: CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR8, CXCR4, Bonzo, BOB, GPR1, V28, US28, and APJ. Most non-syncytium-inducing isolates could utilize only CCR5. All syncytium-inducing(More)