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BACKGROUND Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a Pavlovian paradigm that involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Animal studies have shown that binge consumption of alcohol during pregnancy impairs EBC and that this impairment is likely mediated by a loss of neurons in the(More)
BACKGROUND Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. METHODS Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by(More)
A small percentage of hemodialysis patients maintain higher hemoglobin concentrations without transfusion or erythropoietic therapy. Because uncertainty exists regarding the effects of higher hemoglobin concentration on mortality and quality of life among hemodialysis patients, studying this group of patients with sufficient endogenous erythropoietin may(More)
BACKGROUND There are many plating systems available for treating distal radius fractures, and deciding which to use can be difficult. This prospective cohort study compared outcomes of two commonly used fixation systems: fragment-specific fixation and a fixed-angle volar locking plate system. METHODS Consecutive distal radius fractures were prospectively(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Sudden death is common in hemodialysis patients, but whether modifiable practices affect the risk of sudden death remains unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS This study analyzed 37,765 participants in 12 countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study to explore the association of the following(More)
BACKGROUND Hemodialysis patients with larger hemoglobin level fluctuations have higher mortality rates. We describe facility-level interpatient hemoglobin variability, its relation to patient mortality, and factors associated with facility-level hemoglobin variability or achieving hemoglobin levels of 10.5-12.0 g/dL. Facility-level hemoglobin variability(More)
BACKGROUND Poor nutritional status and both hyper- and hypophosphatemia are associated with increased mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. We assessed associations of phosphate binder prescription with survival and indicators of nutritional status in maintenance HD patients. STUDY DESIGN Prospective cohort study (DOPPS [Dialysis Outcomes(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited information about the clinical and prognostic significance of patient-reported recovery time. STUDY DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS 6,040 patients in the DOPPS (Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study). PREDICTOR Answer to question "How long does it take you to recover from a dialysis session?"(More)