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Hypodactyly (Hd) is a semidominant mutation in mice that maps in a genetic interval overlapping the Hoxa cluster. The profound deficiency of digital arch structures in Hd/Hd mice is consistent with a defect in a gene activated late in limb morphogenesis. We have determined the structure of the Hoxa13 gene and describe a 50-base pair deletion in the first(More)
Despite its clinical significance, joint morphogenesis is still an obscure process. In this study, we determine the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling in mice lacking the TGF-beta type II receptor gene (Tgfbr2) in their limbs (Tgfbr2(PRX-1KO)). In Tgfbr2(PRX-1KO) mice, the loss of TGF-beta responsiveness resulted in the absence of(More)
Regulatory sequences in higher genomes can map large distances from gene coding regions, and cannot yet be identified by simple inspection of primary DNA sequence information. Here we describe an efficient method of surveying large genomic regions for gene regulatory information, and subdividing complex sets of distant regulatory elements into smaller(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) is a multi-functional, developmentally regulated gene that is essential for mouse development, as most Bmp4-null mouse embryos die at the onset of gastrulation and fail to develop mesoderm. Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of Bmp4. To identify potential long-range cis-regulatory elements that direct(More)
Development of the musculoskeletal system requires precise integration of muscles, tendons and bones. The molecular mechanisms involved in the differentiation of each of these tissues have been the focus of significant research; however, much less is known about how these tissues are integrated into a functional unit appropriate for each body position and(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have a therapeutic potential in patients with fractures to reduce the time of healing and treat nonunions. The use of MSC to treat fractures is attractive for several reasons. First, MSCs would be implementing conventional reparative process that seems to be defective or protracted. Secondly, the effects of MSCs treatment would(More)
Classic tissue recombination and in vitro lineage tracing studies suggest that condensed metanephric mesenchyme (MM) gives rise to nephronic epithelium of the adult kidney. However, these studies do not distinguish between cap mesenchyme and pre-tubular aggregates comprising the condensed MM, nor do they establish whether these cells have self-renewing(More)
Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are excellent tools for manipulating large DNA fragments and, as a result, are increasingly utilized to engineer transgenic mice by pronuclear injection. The demand for BAC transgenic mice underscores the need for careful inspection of BAC integrity and fidelity following transgenesis, which may be crucial for(More)
Prior studies showed that bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis (DO) was dependent on vascular tissue development and that inhibition of VEGFR signaling diminished the expression of BMP2. A combination of micro-computed tomography (μCT) analysis of vascular and skeletal tissues, immunohistological and histological analysis of transgenic mice(More)