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Pathogenic Yersinia species export Yop proteins via a type III machinery to escape their phagocytic killing during animal infections. Here, we reveal the type III export mechanism of YopQ. In the presence of calcium, when type III secretion was blocked, yopQ mRNA was not translated. The signal of YopQ sufficient for the secretion of translationally fused(More)
Pathogenic Yersinia species have a specialized secretion system (type III) to target cytotoxic Yop proteins during infection. The signals of YopE and YopN sufficient for the secretion of translational reporter fusions were mapped to the first 15 codons. No common amino acid or peptide sequence could be identified among the secretion signals. Systematic(More)
Pathogenic Yersiniae adhere to and kill macrophages by targeting some of their Yop proteins into the eukaryotic cytosol. There is debate about whether YopE targeting proceeds as a direct translocation of polypeptide between cells or in two distinct steps, each requiring specific signals for YopE secretion across the bacterial envelope and for translocation(More)
Functional micropeptides can be concealed within RNAs that appear to be noncoding. We discovered a conserved micropeptide, which we named myoregulin (MLN), encoded by a skeletal muscle-specific RNA annotated as a putative long noncoding RNA. MLN shares structural and functional similarity with phospholamban (PLN) and sarcolipin (SLN), which inhibit SERCA,(More)
Pathogenic Yersinia species escape the infected host's defense mechanisms by targeting cytotoxic Yop proteins into the cytoplasm of macrophages via a type III secretion pathway. Two separate secretion signals contained in YopE were identified, each of which were sufficient but not necessary for the secretion of reporter molecules. One signal is located(More)
Pseudomonas syringae is a member of an important group of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals that depend on a type III secretion system to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells. In P. syringae, hrp/hrc genes encode the Hrp (type III secretion) system, and avirulence (avr) and Hrp-dependent outer protein (hop) genes encode(More)
Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling comprises events in muscle that convert electrical signals to Ca(2+) transients, which then trigger contraction of the sarcomere. Defects in these processes cause a spectrum of muscle diseases. We report that STAC3, a skeletal muscle-specific protein that localizes to T tubules, is essential for coupling membrane(More)
Homeodomain-containing proteins comprise a superfamily of transcription factors that participate in the regulation of almost all aspects of embryonic development. Here, we describe the mouse embryonic expression pattern of Mohawk, a new member of the TALE superclass of atypical homeobox genes that is most-closely related to the Iroquois class. During mouse(More)
Muscle contraction depends on release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and reuptake by the Ca(2+)adenosine triphosphatase SERCA. We discovered a putative muscle-specific long noncoding RNA that encodes a peptide of 34 amino acids and that we named dwarf open reading frame (DWORF). DWORF localizes to the SR membrane, where it enhances SERCA(More)