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The English Lexicon Project is a multiuniversity effort to provide a standardized behavioral and descriptive data set for 40,481 words and 40,481 nonwords. It is available via the Internet at elexicon.wustl.edu. Data from 816 participants across six universities were collected in a lexical decision task (approximately 3400 responses per participant), and(More)
Preexisting word knowledge is accessed in many cognitive tasks, and this article offers a means for indexing this knowledge so that it can be manipulated or controlled. We offer free association data for 72,000 word pairs, along with over a million entries of related data, such as forward and backward strength, number of competing associates, and printed(More)
A common assumption of theories of memory is that the meaning of a word can be represented by a vector which places a word as a point in a multidimensional semantic space (e. Representing words as vectors in a multidimensional space allows simple geometric operations such as the Euclidian distance or the angle between the vectors to compute the semantic(More)
A model concerning the influence of implicitly activated information on cued recall and recognition is presented. The model assumes that studying a familiar word activates its associates and creates an implicit representation in long-term working memory. Test cues also activate their associates, with memory performance determined by a sampling process that(More)
Cued recall success varies with what people know and with what they do during an episode. This paper focuses on prior knowledge and disentangles the relative effects of 10 features of words and their relationships on cued recall. Results are reported for correlational and multiple regression analyses of data obtained from free association norms and from 29(More)
Previous findings have indicated that the recall of a recently studied word is affected by how many associates it has in long-term memory (set size). The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether recall is also affected by the connectivity of these associates. Studied words were preselected to represent combinations of set size and connectivity(More)
This article summarizes the results of a 15-year research program dedicated to understanding how implicitly activated memories affect remembering and proposes a model for describing such influences. Implicit memories are manipulated by varying the number of associates preexperimentally linked to test cues or to studied words. Assumptions of the model(More)
Veridical memory for presented list words and false memory for nonpresented but related items were tested using the Deese/Roediger and McDermott paradigm. The strength and density of preexisting connections among the list words, and from the list words to the critical items, were manipulated. The likelihood of producing false memories in free recall varied(More)
How do preexisting connections among a word's associates facilitate its cued recall and recognition? A spreading-activation model assumes activation spreads to, among, and from a studied word's associates, and that its return is what strengthens its representation. An activation-at-a-distance model assumes strengthening is produced by the synchronous(More)
Scientists are engaged in mapping the universe, the land, the genome, and word knowledge. In this paper we describe results of a 30-year effort to map and understand how preexisting word knowledge affects memory for a recently experienced word. We show how some of these findings are inconsistent with widely held views in psychological science and support(More)