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Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of the institute. Research disseminated by IZA may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between(More)
This study considers sibling differences in child labor in Nepal. The data are consistent with a model where parents care equally for all children but siblings differ in comparative advantage in household production, although parental preferences and credit constraints could also be important. Girls, especially older girls, tend to work more than their(More)
We measured simultaneously in single toad rods the membrane photocurrent and the Ca concentration in a small volume surrounding the outer segment. Illumination causes a rise in the extracellular Ca concentration. Photocurrents and Ca concentration changes occur over the same range of light intensities. Analysis of the time course of the Ca concentration(More)
A growing literature documents cyclical movements in mortality and health. We examine this pattern more closely and attempt to identify the mechanisms behind it. Specifically, we distinguish between mechanisms that rely on fluctuations in own employment or time use and those involving factors that are external to the individual. Our investigation suggests(More)
We measured the cytoplasmic free Ca concentration in the outer segment of intact, dark-adapted rods of the toad retina. The Ca indicator dye, Quin2, was loaded at concentrations of 0.273 +/- 0.06 mM into the rod cytoplasm by incubation of isolated retinas in the hydrophobic ester, Quin2AM. Quin2 did not alter the cytoplasmic Ca concentration in the dark,(More)
This paper examines the relationship between relative income and mortality. Our research is motivated by recent literature that posits that, holding individual income fixed, those whose income are low relative to the incomes of those in a reference group will have worse health. We develop an empirical model in which an individual's health is a function of(More)