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OBJECTIVES This study sought to assess proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients in the studies of left ventricular dysfunction trial (SOLVD) in relation to both their New York Heart Association functional classification and their neurohormonal status before randomization. BACKGROUND Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha have been identified in(More)
Cardiac macrophages are crucial for tissue repair after cardiac injury but are not well characterized. Here we identify four populations of cardiac macrophages. At steady state, resident macrophages were primarily maintained through local proliferation. However, after macrophage depletion or during cardiac inflammation, Ly6c(hi) monocytes contributed to all(More)
BACKGROUND Heart failure has an annual mortality rate ranging from 5% to 75%. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a multivariate risk model to predict 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival in heart failure patients with the use of easily obtainable characteristics relating to clinical status, therapy (pharmacological as well as devices), and(More)
Recent studies have identified the importance of proinflammatory mediators in the development and progression of heart failure. The growing appreciation of the pathophysiological consequences of sustained expression of proinflammatory mediators in preclinical and clinical heart failure models culminated in a series of multicenter clinical trials that used(More)
D espite repeated attempts to develop a unifying hypothesis that explains the clinical syndrome of heart failure, no single conceptual paradigm for heart failure has withstood the test of time. Whereas clinicians initially viewed heart failure as a problem of excessive salt and water retention that was caused by abnormalities of renal blood flow (the "(More)
Meiotic recombination does not appear to occur randomly across chromosomes, but rather seems to be restricted to specific regions. A striking example of this phenomenon is illustrated by the HLA class II region. No recombination within the 100 kb encompassing the DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 loci has been reported, whereas the random association of TAP1 with TAP2 alleles(More)
Atrogin1/MAFbx is an ubiquitin ligase that mediates muscle atrophy in a variety of catabolic states. We recently found that H2O2 stimulates atrogin1/MAFbx gene expression. Since the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates both reactive oxygen production and general activity of the ubiquitin conjugating pathway, we hypothesized that(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that produces negative inotropic effects in the heart. Recently, elevated levels of TNF-alpha have been reported in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. Although TNF-alpha is thought to exert its deleterious effects by binding to two cell surface receptors, TNFR1(More)
BACKGROUND Although patients with heart failure express elevated circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in their peripheral circulation, the structural and functional effects of circulating levels of pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-alpha on the heart are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS Osmotic infusion pumps(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports have shown that elevated circulating levels of cytokines and/or cytokine receptors predict adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure. However, these studies were limited by small numbers of patients and/or they were performed in a single center. In addition, these studies did not have sufficient size to address the(More)