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Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a central mode of genetic regulation in higher eukaryotes. Variability in splicing patterns is a major source of protein diversity from the genome. In this review, I describe what is currently known of the molecular mechanisms that control changes in splice site choice. I start with the best-characterized systems from the(More)
Many metazoan gene transcripts exhibit neuron-specific splicing patterns, but the developmental control of these splicing events is poorly understood. We show that the splicing of a large group of exons is reprogrammed during neuronal development by a switch in expression between two highly similar polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins, PTB and nPTB (neural(More)
The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is a 58-kilodalton RNA binding protein involved in multiple aspects of messenger RNA metabolism, including the repression of alternative exons. We have determined the solution structures of the four RNA binding domains (RBDs) of PTB, each bound to a CUCUCU oligonucleotide. Each RBD binds RNA with a different(More)
Calcium regulation of gene expression is critical for the long-lasting activity-dependent changes in cellular electrical properties that underlie important physiological functions such as learning and memory. Cellular electrical properties are diversified through the extensive alternative splicing of ion channel pre-messenger RNAs; however, the regulation(More)
We have purified and cloned a new splicing factor, KSRP. KSRP is a component of a multiprotein complex that binds specifically to an intronic splicing enhancer element downstream of the neuron-specific c-src N1 exon. This 75-kD protein induces the assembly of five other proteins, including the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F, onto the splicing(More)
Alternative pre-mRNA splicing has an important role in the control of neuronal gene expression. Many neuronal proteins are structurally diversified through the differential inclusion and exclusion of sequences in the final spliced mRNA. Here, we discuss common mechanisms of splicing regulation and provide examples of how alternative splicing has important(More)
The Rbfox proteins (Rbfox1, Rbfox2, and Rbfox3) regulate the alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts and have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. However, their roles in brain development and function are not well understood, in part due to redundancy in their activities. Here we show that, unlike Rbfox1 deletion, the(More)
A vertebrate homologue of the Fox-1 protein from C. elegans was recently shown to bind to the element GCAUG and to act as an inhibitor of alternative splicing patterns in muscle. The element UGCAUG is a splicing enhancer element found downstream of numerous neuron-specific exons. We show here that mouse Fox-1 (mFox-1) and another homologue, Fox-2, are both(More)
Neurons make extensive use of alternative pre-mRNA splicing to regulate gene expression and diversify physiological responses. We showed previously in a pituitary cell line that the Ca(++)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CaMK IV specifically repressed splicing of the BK channel STREX exon. This repression is dependent on a CaMK IV-responsive RNA element(More)
Smith and Valcarcel, 2000). In some transcripts, whole functional domains can be added or subtracted from the protein coding sequence. In other systems, the intro-The human genome sequence can be thought of as a duction of an early stop codon can result in a truncated picture of the human organism. However, like an impres-protein or an unstable mRNA(More)