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A novel protocol has been developed for comparing the structural properties of lipid bilayers determined by simulation with those determined by diffraction experiments, which makes it possible to test critically the ability of molecular dynamics simulations to reproduce experimental data. This model-independent method consists of analyzing data from(More)
Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels undergo a series of conformational changes upon membrane depolarization, from a down state when the channel is at rest to an up state, all of which lead to the opening of the channel pore. The crystal structures reported to date reveal the pore in an open state and the VSDs in an up(More)
The voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1) is homologous to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels but lacks a separate pore domain. The Hv1 monomer has dual functions: it gates the proton current and also serves as the proton conduction pathway. To gain insight into the structure and dynamics of the yet unresolved proton(More)
Despite the growing number of atomic-resolution membrane protein structures, direct structural information about proteins in their native membrane environment is scarce. This problem is particularly relevant in the case of the highly charged S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains responsible for nerve impulses, where interactions with the lipid bilayer are critical(More)
We describe a prototype system (Poly-X) for assisting an expert user in modeling protein repeats. Poly-X reduces the large number of degrees of freedom required to specify a protein motif in complete atomic detail. The result is a small number of parameters that are easily understood by, and under the direct control of, a domain expert. The system was(More)
The microscopic interactions and mechanisms leading to nascent protein folding events are generally unknown. While such short time-scale events are difficult to study experimentally, molecular dynamics simulations of peptides can provide a useful model for studying events related to protein folding initiation. Recently, two extremely long molecular dynamics(More)
Voltage-sensor (VS) domains cause the pore of voltage-gated ion channels to open and close in response to changes in transmembrane potential. Recent experimental studies suggest that VS domains are independent structural units. This independence is revealed dramatically by a voltage-dependent proton-selective channel (Hv), which has a sequence homologous to(More)
Several laboratories have carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of arginine interactions with lipid bilayers and found that the energetic cost of placing arginine in lipid bilayers is an order of magnitude greater than observed in molecular biology experiments in which Arg-containing transmembrane helices are inserted across the endoplasmic(More)
The light-induced isomerization of the retinal from 11-cis to all-trans triggers changes in the conformation of visual rhodopsins that lead to the formation of the activated state, which is ready to interact with the G protein. To begin to understand how changes in the structure and dynamics of the retinal are transmitted to the protein, we performed(More)