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We embodied networks of cultured biological neurons in simulation and in robotics. This is a new research paradigm to study learning, memory, and information processing in real time: the Neurally-Controlled Animat. Neural activity was subject to detailed electrical and optical observation using multi-electrode arrays and microscopy in order to access the(More)
Microelectrode arrays and microprobes have been widely utilized to measure neuronal activity, both in vitro and in vivo. The key advantage is the capability to record and stimulate neurons at multiple sites simultaneously. However, unlike the single-cell or single-channel resolution of intracellular recording, microelectrodes detect signals from all(More)
—We report on a CMOS-based microelectrode array (MEA) featuring 11,011 metal electrodes and 126 channels, each of which comprises recording and stimulation electronics, for extracellular bidirectional communication with electrogenic cells, such as neurons or cardiomyocytes. The important features include: (i) high spatial resolution at (sub)cellular level(More)
We developed an adaptive training algorithm, whereby an in vitro neocortical network learned to modulate its dynamics and achieve pre-determined activity states within tens of minutes through the application of patterned training stimuli using a multi-electrode array. A priori knowledge of functional connectivity was not necessary. Instead, effective(More)
In order to understand how retinal circuits encode visual scenes, the neural activity of defined populations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has to be investigated. Here we report on a method for stimulating, detecting, and subsequently targeting defined populations of RGCs. The possibility to select a distinct population of RGCs for extracellular(More)
Understanding plasticity of neural networks is a key to comprehending their development and function. A powerful technique to study neural plasticity includes recording and control of pre- and post-synaptic neural activity, e.g., by using simultaneous intracellular recording and stimulation of several neurons. Intracellular recording is, however, a(More)
BACKGROUND The precise temporal control of neuronal action potentials is essential for regulating many brain functions. From the viewpoint of a neuron, the specific timings of afferent input from the action potentials of its synaptic partners determines whether or not and when that neuron will fire its own action potential. Tuning such input would provide a(More)
Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the(More)
Bursts of action potentials within neurons and throughout networks are believed to serve roles in how neurons handle and store information, both in vivo and in vitro. Accurate detection of burst occurrences and durations are therefore crucial for many studies. A number of algorithms have been proposed to do so, but a standard method has not been adopted.(More)
Axons are traditionally considered stable transmission cables, but evidence of the regulation of action potential propagation demonstrates that axons may have more important roles. However, their small diameters render intracellular recordings challenging, and low-magnitude extracellular signals are difficult to detect and assign. Better experimental access(More)