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Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation causes hereditary type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC2). The main effect of FH mutation is fumarate accumulation. The current paradigm posits that the main consequence of fumarate accumulation is HIF-α stabilization. Paradoxically, FH mutation differs from other HIF-α stabilizing mutations, such as VHL and SDH(More)
During development, neurons send out axonal processes that can reach lengths hundreds of times longer than the diameter of their cell bodies. Recent studies indicate that en masse microtubule translocation is a significant mechanism underlying axonal elongation, but how cellular forces drive this process is unknown. Cytoplasmic dynein generates forces on(More)
In vitro studies conducted in Aplysia and chick sensory neurons indicate that in addition to microtubule assembly, long microtubules in the C-domain of the growth cone move forward as a coherent bundle during axonal elongation. Nonetheless, whether this mode of microtubule translocation contributes to growth cone motility in vivo is unknown. To address this(More)
Dyneins are a small class of molecular motors that bind to microtubules and walk toward their minus ends. They are essential for the transport and distribution of organelles, signaling complexes and cytoskeletal elements. In addition dyneins generate forces on microtubule arrays that power the beating of cilia and flagella, cell division, migration and(More)
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