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To characterize prescription opioid dependent patients in a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program, a detailed retrospective chart review of new admissions (1997-1999, n=178, mean age=34.5+/-0.7 years, 65% male) was conducted. At admission most patients (83%) had been using prescription opioids (+/-heroin). Four groups were identified: 24% had used(More)
The heightened interest in pain management is making the need for appropriate boundary setting within the clinician-patient relationship even more apparent. Unfortunately, it is impossible to determine before hand, with any degree of certainty, who will become problematic users of prescription medications. With this in mind, a parallel is drawn between the(More)
The use of urine drug testing (UDT) has increased over recent years. UDT results have traditionally been used in legal proceedings under supervision of a medical review officer (MRO). In this context, testing has been required by statute or regulation and so is typically not in the "donor's" interest. Physicians, however, can use UDT to assist in monitoring(More)
Increased abuse and diversion of prescription opioids has been a consequence of the increased availability of opioids to address the widespread problem of undertreated pain. Opioid risk management refers to the effort to minimize harms associated with opioid therapy while maintaining appropriate access to therapy. Management of these linked public health(More)
Sublingual buphrenorphine is a unique opioid medication based on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties. It may be used "on label" as an alternative choice to methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction or "off-label" for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain. Because of high mu receptor affinity and resultant blockade, it has been(More)
PURPOSE Methadone, an opioid traditionally associated with the management of opioid addictive disorders, has been prescribed increasingly as an analgesic for the management of various chronic pain conditions. Despite the increasing popularity of methadone, most anesthesiologists are not familiar with its complex pharmacology. The purpose of this article is(More)
The use of controlled substances, including opioids, in people who may suffer from concurrent substance use disorders presents challenges to the healthcare professional. Pain and addiction can coexist either as a continuum or separate comorbid conditions. Success in the treatment of either condition requires an approach that encompasses the biopsychosocial(More)
Minor metabolic pathways in human subjects have been shown to exist for the conversion of codeine to hydrocodone but have not been reported for the metabolic conversion of morphine to hydromorphone. In this study, urine specimens were collected in an out-patient setting from 13 pain patients who were chronically treated with morphine and other opioids(More)
The adequate cotreatment of chronic pain and addiction disorders is a complex and challenging problem for health care professionals. There is great potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of pain; however, the increasing prevalence of recreational cannabis use has led to a considerable increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use(More)