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BACKGROUND AND METHODS Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation.(More)
Although nicotine is a drug of abuse for millions of smokers, it has been difficult to demonstrate clearly the motivational properties of nicotine with rats using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. The first experiment attempted to replicate CPPs reported by other researchers using nicotine doses of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mg/kg. There was a trend(More)
The accurate assessment of nicotine withdrawal is important theoretically and clinically. A 28-item scale, the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale, was developed that contains 7 reliable subscales tapping the major symptom elements of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Coefficients alpha for the subscales range from .75 to .93. This scale is sensitive to(More)
In this article, the authors assessed whether continuously scaled symptom parameters derived from growth models (T. M. Piasecki et al., 2003) are linked to smoking at long-term follow-up by using data from a large-scale clinical trial (N = 893). Results revealed that higher withdrawal intercepts, positive linear slopes, and greater volatility were all(More)
Smoking withdrawal reports from a clinical trial (n = 893) were submitted to hierarchical linear modeling as a cross-method replication of a heterogeneity approach to withdrawal measurement and to clarify the influence of postcessation smoking on symptom reports. Five individual difference parameters tapping distinct facets of withdrawal were derived:(More)
RATIONALE Acute cravings, often provoked by exposure to smoking cues, appear to be important triggers for smoking relapse. Relief of acute craving may therefore be an important step in preventing relapse. OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of nicotine gum in relieving acute craving. METHODS A multi-center, randomized,(More)
CONTEXT Little direct evidence exists on the relative efficacies of different smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, yet such evidence is needed to make informed decisions about their clinical use. OBJECTIVE To assess the relative efficacies of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions using placebo-controlled, head-to-head comparisons. DESIGN A(More)
Traditional models of physical dependence suggest that nicotine dependence should be reflected by the extent of drug exposure (e.g., smoking rate) and by evidence of physiological adaptation (e.g., withdrawal severity). An affective model suggests that nicotine dependence should be related to an individual's tendency to experience negative affect and(More)
Gender differences in smoking quit rates are frequently reported and are the subject of much speculation. This study examined the generalizability of gender differences in abstinence across study sites, treatments, and time of relapse, as well as potential mediators and moderators of gender effects. Participants were smokers who participated in 3 randomized(More)
The efficacies of 2 group counseling step-up treatments for smoking cessation, cognitive-behavioral/skill training therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing/supportive (MIS) therapy, were compared with brief intervention (BI) treatment in a sample of 677 smokers. Differential efficacy of the 2 step-up treatments was also tested in smokers at low and high(More)