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Although considerable progress has been made in characterising the 5-HT1A receptor using agonists, partial agonists or non-selective antagonists, further studies of 5-HT1A receptor function have been hindered by the lack of highly selective antagonists. The term 'silent' antagonist has been used for such compounds in order to distinguish them unequivocally(More)
Initiation of productive immune responses against Leishmania depends on the successful transition of dendritic cells (DC) from an immature to a mature phenotype. This process is characterized by high CD40 surface expression as well as interleukin-12 production, which are frequently seen in response to L. major infection. In vivo footpad infection of(More)
The requirements for effective and efficient intracellular killing of Leishmania amazonensis by activated macrophages are unknown. Despite resistance to the arginase inhibitor LOHA by intracellular L. amazonensis amastigotes, enhanced replication did not account for the relative resistance of this parasite to macrophage activation. Herein we report that the(More)
A growing body of evidence suggests that endogenous antibiotics contribute to the innate defense of mammalian mucosal surfaces. In the cow, beta-defensins constitute a large family of antibiotic peptides whose members have been previously isolated from the respiratory and oral mucosa, as well as circulating phagocytic cells. A novel bovine genomic clone(More)
To study the mechanism(s) controlling expression of the tumor-associated aldehyde dehydrogenase (tumor ALDH), which appears during rat hepatocarcinogenesis, cDNAs encoding this isozyme were cloned and identified with an antibody probe. Poly(A)-containing RNA from HTC rat hepatoma cells, which have been shown to possess high levels of tumor ALDH, was used as(More)
We previously reported the isolation and characterization of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide from the bovine tracheal mucosa, which we called tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP). We now show the TAP gene is expressed throughout the adult conducting airway, from nasal to bronchiolar tissue, but not in tissues other than airway mucosa, as determined(More)
Mucosal surfaces of several organ systems are important interfaces for host defense against microbes. Recent evidence suggests that antimicrobial peptides contribute to the defense of these surfaces. Defensins are one family of antimicrobial peptide, but their known distribution in humans has been limited to four members found in cells of myeloid origin. We(More)
Leishmania amazonensis induces a nonhealing infection in C3H mice, whereas infection with Leishmania major is self-healing. We found that C3H mice infected with L. amazonensis exhibited decreased IL-12 production, which could account for the susceptibility to this organism. However, exogenous IL-12 administration failed to induce a healing immune response.(More)
C3H and C57BL/6 mice are resistant to Leishmania major but develop chronic lesions with persistent parasite loads when they are infected with Leishmania amazonensis. These lesions develop in the absence of interleukin-4 (IL-4), indicating that susceptibility to this parasite is not a result of development of a Th2 response. Expression of the cytokine IL-10(More)
The epithelial surface of the human small intestine is a barrier between the host and the microbial environment of the lumen. A human small intestine cDNA clone was found to encode a new member of the defensin family of antimicrobial peptides, named human defensin-6. Tissue expression of this mRNA is specific for the small intestine as determined by(More)