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The vulnerability of neurons and the irreversibility of loss make discoveries of neuroprotective compounds fundamentally important. Here, the complete coding sequence of a novel protein (828 amino acids, pI 5.99), derived from mouse neuroglial cells, is revealed. The sequence contained (1) a neuroprotective peptide, NAPVSIPQ, sharing structural and(More)
We have recently cloned the mouse activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP). Here, we disclose the cloning of human ADNP (hADNP) from a fetal brain cDNA library. Comparative sequence analysis of these two ADNP orthologs indicated 90% identity at the mRNA level. Several single nucleotide polymorphic sites were noticed. The deduced protein structure(More)
A novel 14-amino acid peptide, with stress-protein-like sequences, exhibiting neuroprotection at unprecedented concentrations, is revealed. This peptide prevented neuronal cell death associated with the envelope protein (GP 120) from HIV, with excitotoxicity (N-methyl d-aspartate), with the beta amyloid peptide (putative cytotoxin in Alzheimer's disease),(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) provides neuroprotection against beta-amyloid toxicity in models of Alzheimer's disease. A superactive analogue, stearyl-Nle17-VIP (SNV) is a 100-fold more potent than VIP. In primary neuronal cultures, VIP protective activity may be mediated by femtomolar-acting glial proteins such as activity-dependent neurotrophic(More)
Activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF) is a glia-derived protein that is neuroprotective at femtomolar concentrations. A 14-amino acid peptide of ADNF (ADNF-14) has been reported that protects cultured neurons from multiple neurotoxins. Structure-activity relationships of peptides related to ADNF-14 now have been determined. A 9-amino acid core(More)
Factors controlling central nervous system (CNS) growth immediately after neurulation are mostly unknown. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors are widely distributed in the embryonic nervous system, and VIP has trophic and mitogenic properties on embryonic neural tissues but inhibits growth and mitosis in certain tumours. To address the potential(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been suggested as a neurotransmitter mediating penile erection. We now show that VIP can stimulate sexual behavior in rats with reduced masculine potential due to pituitary grafting or castration. This effect was attenuated in the presence of a novel VIP antagonist, devised by a hybrid peptide strategy. Thus, we have(More)
Excitotoxic damage may be a critical factor in the formation of brain lesions associated with cerebral palsy. When injected at birth, the glutamatergic analog ibotenate induces mouse brain lesions that strikingly mimic human microgyria. When ibotenate is injected at postnatal day 5, it produces transcortical necrosis and white matter cysts that mimic human(More)
Activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF) is a glia-derived protein that is neuroprotective at femtomolar concentrations. A nine-amino acid peptide derived from ADNF (Ser-Ala-Leu-Leu-Arg-Ser-Ile-Pro-Ala; ADNF-9) captured the activity of the parent protein and has been reported to protect cultured neurons from multiple neurotoxins. Antibodies recognizing(More)
Recently, multiple receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) have been molecularly cloned and our understanding of VIP chemistry and mechanisms of action has been broadened. The following review outlines the physiological effects of the hormone from growth regulation, reproduction, bronchodilation, vasodilation and immune interactions to(More)