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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity in most, but not all, ethnic groups, suggesting important ethnic differences in disease susceptibility. Although it is clear that insulin resistance plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM and that insulin resistance is strongly associated with increases in hepatic (HTG) and/or(More)
Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. To investigate how insulin resistance arises, we studied healthy, lean, elderly and young participants matched for lean body mass and fat mass. Elderly study participants were markedly insulin-resistant as compared with young controls, and this resistance was(More)
Short term high fat feeding in rats results specifically in hepatic fat accumulation and provides a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in which to study the mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance. Short term fat feeding (FF) caused a approximately 3-fold increase in liver triglyceride and total fatty acyl-CoA content without any significant(More)
To examine the mechanism by which moderate weight reduction improves basal and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, we used (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content in conjunction with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps using(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance appears to be the best predictor of the development of diabetes in the children of patients with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism responsible is unknown. METHODS We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies in combination with infusions of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose in healthy, young, lean, insulin-resistant offspring(More)
To further explore the nature of the mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance that occur in the muscle of young, lean, normoglycemic, insulin-resistant offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes (IR offspring), we measured mitochondrial content by electron microscopy and insulin signaling in muscle biopsy samples obtained from these individuals(More)
We examined the hypothesis that insulin resistance in skeletal muscle promotes the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia, associated with the metabolic syndrome, by altering the distribution pattern of postprandial energy storage. Following ingestion of two high carbohydrate mixed meals, net muscle glycogen synthesis was reduced by approximately 60% in(More)
We examined the effect of three months of rosiglitazone treatment (4 mg b.i.d.) on whole-body insulin sensitivity and in vivo peripheral adipocyte insulin sensitivity as assessed by glycerol release in microdialysis from subcutaneous fat during a two-step (20 and 120 mU.m(-2).min(-1)) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in nine type 2 diabetic subjects. In(More)
Insulin resistance is the best predictor for the development of diabetes in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, but the mechanism responsible for it remains unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated increased intramyocellular lipid, decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and decreased mitochondrial density in the muscle of lean, insulin-resistant(More)
Endurance exercise training is accompanied by physiological changes that improve muscle function and performance. Several studies have demonstrated that markers of mitochondrial capacity are elevated, however, these studies tend to be performed ex vivo under conditions that yield maximal enzyme activities or in vivo but monitoring the response to exercise.(More)