Learn More
Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. To investigate how insulin resistance arises, we studied healthy, lean, elderly and young participants matched for lean body mass and fat mass. Elderly study participants were markedly insulin-resistant as compared with young controls, and this resistance was(More)
Mitochondrial ATP production is vital for meeting cellular energy demand at rest and during periods of high ATP turnover. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIT) would increase ATP flux in resting muscle (VPi→ATP) in response to a single bout of exercise, whereas changes in the capacity for oxidative ATP production (Vmax) would require(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between aging-associated reductions in mitochondrial function, dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Given the important role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of fat oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined AMPK activity in young and(More)
Endurance exercise training is accompanied by physiological changes that improve muscle function and performance. Several studies have demonstrated that markers of mitochondrial capacity are elevated, however, these studies tend to be performed ex vivo under conditions that yield maximal enzyme activities or in vivo but monitoring the response to exercise.(More)
Hepatic fat fraction (HFF) was measured in 28 lean/obese humans by single-voxel proton spectroscopy (MRS), a two-point Dixon (2PD), and a three-point iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method (3PI). For the lean, obese, and total subject groups, the range of HFF measured by MRS was 0.3-3.5% (1.1(More)
Energy for muscle contractions is supplied by ATP generated from 1) the net hydrolysis of phosphocreatine (PCr) through the creatine kinase reaction, 2) oxidative phosphorylation, and 3) anaerobic glycolysis. The effect of old age on these pathways is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether age may affect ATP synthesis rates from these(More)
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a dominantly inherited disorder usually associated with mutations in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB), is characterized by elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormones (including thyroxine), failure of feedback suppression of thyrotropin, and variable tissue refractoriness to thyroid hormone action. Raised energy(More)
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers a broad range of noninvasive analytical methods for investigating metabolism in vivo. Of these, the magnetization-transfer (MT) techniques permit the estimation of the unidirectional fluxes associated with metabolic exchange reactions. Phosphorus (³¹P) MT measurements can be used to examine the bioenergetic reactions(More)
Despite the central role of the liver in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, there are currently no methods to directly assess hepatic oxidative metabolism in humans in vivo. By using a new (13)C-labeling strategy in combination with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that rates of mitochondrial oxidation and anaplerosis in human(More)
M agnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a companion technique to the more familiar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Whereas MRI determines the spatial distribution of water (and lipid) protons across a region of interest, MRS measures the chemical content of MR-visible nuclei, which include the metabolically relevant elements of hydrogen (1 H),(More)