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Modification of arginine residues by citrullination is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), of which five are known, generating irreversible protein structural modifications. We have shown previously that enhanced citrullination of myelin basic protein contributed to destabilization of the myelin membrane in the CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS)(More)
We have studied a case of acute, fulminating multiple sclerosis (MS) (Marburg type) at the pathological and biochemical levels. Postmortem examination of the brain revealed extensive areas of gross rarefaction in the hemispheric white matter. Histologically, well-demarcated areas of demyelination with a large influx of macrophages and a subtle perivascular(More)
Isolation of several of the charge isomers from both normal and multiple sclerosis (MS) myelin basic protein (MBP) was achieved on CM-52 columns at pH 10.6. In liquid x-ray diffraction and aggregation experiments, corresponding charge isomers were equally effective in the formation of multilayers, demonstrating the dominant role of overall net positive(More)
Human myelin basic protein was fractionated into its various charge isomers by CM52 cation exchange chromatography. Approximately 25-30% of the total charge applied to the column appeared in the void volume. This material termed "C-8," was further purified by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid analyses of C-8 revealed low Arg(More)
In previous studies, we documented increased citrullinated myelin basic protein (MBP) was present in MBP isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) normal appearing white matter (NAWM). This increase was due to the myelin enzyme peptidyl argininedeiminase 2 (PAD2). In this study, we show that methylation of cytosine of the PAD2 promoter in DNA from MS NAWM was(More)
Myelin basic protein (MBP) occurs as a number of charge isomers due to phosphorylation, deamidation, and deimination of arginine to citrulline. All of these modifications decrease the net positive charge of the protein and its ability to cause aggregation of negatively charged lipid vesicles. This is used as a model system for the ability of MBP to cause(More)
The pathogenesis of MS is unknown. In our studies, we have demonstrated an important role for citrullinated myelin basic protein (MBP). The accompanying loss of positive charge compromises the ability of MBP to interact with the lipid bilayer. The conversion of arginine to citrulline in brain is carried out by an enzyme peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) 2.(More)
In earlier studies we demonstrated that an increase in the relative amounts of citrullinated myelin basic protein (MBP) was found in multiple sclerosis (Moscarello et al. 1994). To determine the temporal relationship between the citrullinated MBP and peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD), the enzyme responsible for deiminating arginyl residues in proteins, we(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by unknown environmental factors in genetically susceptible hosts. MS risk was linked to high rates of cow milk protein (CMP) consumption, reminiscent of a similar association in autoimmune diabetes. A recent rodent study showed that immune responses to the CMP, butyrophilin, can lead to(More)
The localization of myelin basic proteins (MBPs) in an immortalized human-human hybrid cell line (MO3-13) formed by fusion of rhabdomyosarcoma TE671-TG6 with primary human oligodendrocytes, cultured from surgical specimens, demonstrated an intracellular localization in vesicles and vacuoles with an intricate internal membranous network and to the external(More)