Douglas D. Richman

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This July 2014 edition of the IAS–USA drug resistance mutations list updates the figures last published in March 2013.1 The following mutations have been added to existing classes or drugs: K65E/N has been added to the bars for the nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTIs) abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine,(More)
The hypothesis that quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes carrying proviral DNA provide a reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was examined. In a study of 22 patients successfully treated with HAART for up to 30 months, replication-competent virus was routinely recovered from resting(More)
HIV-1 deleted for the vif accessory gene encapsidates the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Upon infection, the encapsidated APOBEC3G induces G→A mutations in the viral reverse transcripts. The G→A mutations result either from C→U deamination of the minus strand or deamination of both strands followed by repair of the plus strand. We report here that(More)
The viruses HIV-1, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are characterized by the establishment of lifelong infection in the human host, where their replication is thought to be tightly controlled by virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Here we present detailed studies of the differentiation phenotype of these cells, which can(More)
A recombinant virus assay was used to characterize in detail neutralizing antibody responses directed at circulating autologous HIV in plasma. Examining serial plasma specimens in a matrix format, most patients with primary HIV infection rapidly generated significant neutralizing antibody responses to early (0-39 months) autologous viruses, whereas(More)
Several codon-based methods are available for detecting adaptive evolution in protein-coding sequences, but to date none specifically identify sites that are selected differentially in two populations, although such comparisons between populations have been historically useful in identifying the action of natural selection. We have developed two fixed(More)
Although combination therapy for HIV infection represents a triumph for modern medicine, chronic suppressive therapy is required to contain persistent infection in reservoirs such as latently infected CD4+ lymphocytes and cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage. Despite its success, chronic suppressive therapy is limited by its cost, the requirement of(More)
In evaluating current combination drug regimens for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, it is important to determine the existence of viral reservoirs. After depletion of CD8 cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both patients and normal donors, activation of patient CD4 lymphocytes with immobilized antibodies to(More)
Many current health status instruments either are too long to use in many acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinical trials or omit important concepts. In this study, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-relevant items developed for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) from subscales for cognitive function, energy/fatigue, health distress, and a single(More)