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Under anaerobic conditions, especially at low pH, Escherichia coli converts pyruvate to D-lactate by means of an NADH-linked lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). This LDH is present in substantial basal levels under all conditions but increases approximately 10-fold at low pH. The ldhA gene, encoding the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase of E. coli, was cloned(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated target in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. Most patients, however, do not respond or develop resistance to this agent. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in the pathogenesis of SCC of the head and neck (SCCHN). This study aimed to determine if targeting mTOR in(More)
Computational thinking (CT) draws on concepts and practices that are fundamental to computing and computer science. It includes epistemic and representational practices, such as problem representation, abstraction, decomposition, simulation, verification, and prediction. However, these practices are also central to the development of expertise in scientific(More)
Expression of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adhE, in Escherichia coli is anaerobically regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. To study the AdhE protein, the adhE(+) structural gene was cloned into expression vectors under the control of the lacZ and trp(c) promoters. Wild-type AdhE protein produced under aerobic conditions(More)
Multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) targeting VEGF receptors and other receptor tyrosine kinases have shown considerable activity in clinical trials of thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer frequently exhibits activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. In other types of cancer, paradoxical ERK activation has emerged as a potential resistance mechanism to RAF-inhibiting(More)
AIMS This proof-of-concept study was designed to determine if functional, pharmacodynamic profiles relevant to targeted therapy could be derived from live human melanoma samples using a novel automated platform. METHODS A series of 13 melanoma cell lines was briefly exposed to a BRAF inhibitor (PLX-4720) on a platform employing automated fluidics for(More)