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In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was(More)
In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was(More)
–A testbed for evaluation of general-purpose digital signal processors in earth-orbiting radar scatterometers is discussed. Because general purpose DSP represents a departure from previous radar signal processing techniques used on scatterometers, there was a need to demonstrate key elements of the system to verify feasibility for potential future(More)
Over the last decade, researchers have developed sophisticated online learning environments to promote argumentative discourse between students. This symposium examines some of the diverse ways researchers have attempted to examine how students engage in argumentation and to assess the effectiveness of CSCL environments in fostering productive(More)
abstraCt A workshop held at the National Academies in the United States in 2007 highlighted five broad categories of skills that appear valuable across a range of jobs for people working in modern global economies. Engaging students in scientific argumentation can support the development of these 21 st century skills. Unfortunately, opportunities are rare(More)
CSCL includes a wide range of scenarios that integrate individual and collaborative learning. Scripts have repeatedly proven useful for guiding learners to engage in specific roles and activities in CSCL environments. The effective mechanisms of scripts in stimulating cognitive and collaborative processes, however, are not yet well understood. Moreover,(More)
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