Douglas C. Wallace

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Life is the interplay between structure and energy, yet the role of energy deficiency in human disease has been poorly explored by modern medicine. Since the mitochondria use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to convert dietary calories into usable energy, generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a toxic by-product, I hypothesize that mitochondrial(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation was examined in Finns, Swedes and Tuscans by PCR amplification and restriction analysis. About 99% of the mtDNAs were subsumed within 10 mtDNA haplogroups (H, I, J, K, M, T, U, V, W, and X) suggesting that the identified haplogroups could encompass virtually all European mtDNAs. Because both hypervariable(More)
Over the past 10 years, mitochondrial defects have been implicated in a wide variety of degenerative diseases, aging, and cancer. Studies on patients with these diseases have revealed much about the complexities of mitochondrial genetics, which involves an interplay between mutations in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. However, the pathophysiology of(More)
Human mtDNA shows striking regional variation, traditionally attributed to genetic drift. However, it is not easy to account for the fact that only two mtDNA lineages (M and N) left Africa to colonize Eurasia and that lineages A, C, D, and G show a 5-fold enrichment from central Asia to Siberia. As an alternative to drift, natural selection might have(More)
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited disease resulting in optic nerve degeneration and cardiac dysrhythmia. A mitochondrial DNA replacement mutation was identified that correlated with this disease in multiple families. This mutation converted a highly conserved arginine to a histidine at codon 340 in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit(More)
The mtDNA variation of 321 individuals from 17 Native American populations was examined by high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. All mtDNAs were amplified from a variety of sources by using PCR. The mtDNA of a subset of 38 of these individuals was also analyzed by D-loop sequencing. The resulting data were combined with previous mtDNA data from(More)
Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has permitted the reconstruction of the ancient migrations of women. This has provided evidence that our species arose in Africa about 150000 years before present (YBP), migrated out of Africa into Asia about 60000 to 70000 YBP and into Europe about 40000 to 50000 YBP, and migrated from Asia and possibly(More)
A sudden increase in permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the so-called mitochondrial permeability transition, is a common feature of apoptosis and is mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). It is thought that the mtPTP is a protein complex formed by the voltage-dependent anion channel, members of the pro- and(More)
Human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 153 independent samples encompassing seven Asian populations were surveyed for sequence variation using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction endonuclease analysis and oligonucleotide hybridization. All Asian populations were found to share two ancient AluI/DdeI polymorphisms at nps 10394 and 10397 and to be(More)
The variation of 77 biallelic sites located in the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome was examined in 608 male subjects from 22 African populations. This survey revealed a total of 37 binary haplotypes, which were combined with microsatellite polymorphism data to evaluate internal diversities and to estimate coalescence ages of the binary(More)