Douglas C. Macdonald

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Neocortical epilepsy is frequently drug-resistant. Surgery to remove the epileptogenic zone is only feasible in a minority of cases, leaving many patients without an effective treatment. We report the potential efficacy of gene therapy in focal neocortical epilepsy using a rodent model in which epilepsy is induced by tetanus toxin injection in the motor(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS All oral direct acting antivirals (DAAs) effectively treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the benefits in advanced liver disease are unclear. We compared outcomes in treated and untreated patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS Patients with HCV and decompensated cirrhosis or at risk of irreversible disease were(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Direct-acting antivirals have become widely used for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection with decompensated cirrhosis. Virological responses are excellent and early improvements in liver function, at least in a proportion of patients, have been observed but the longer term impact of viral clearance on end-stage liver disease(More)
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rising. HCC in HIV almost invariably occurs in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and, on account of shared modes of transmission, this occurs in more than 33% and 10% of patients with HIV worldwide respectively.(More)
To the Editor: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) results in a large number of deaths and considerable illness in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the disease is uncommon in returning travelers from that region, awareness of it is important for medical practitioners in areas where the disease is not endemic. The disease can be categorized geographically into(More)
The expulsion of a primary infection of Trichinella spiralis was studied in rats fed diets containing (per kg diet) either 3 mg Zn [zinc deficient (Zn-)] or 40 mg Zn [zinc adequate (Zn+)]. A dose of 2000 muscle larvae (ML) impaired weight gain (mg/g body wt) in all groups compared with uninfected controls [eg, 0-7 d postinfection (dpi): infected Zn-, -105(More)
T cell receptor (TCR) down-modulation after antigen presentation is a fundamental process that regulates TCR signal transduction. Current understanding of this process is that intrinsic TCR/CD28 signal transduction leads to TCR down-modulation. Here, we show that the interaction between programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) on dendritic cells (DCs) and(More)
Although bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an established vaccine with excellent efficacy against disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in young children, efficacy in adults suffering from respiratory tuberculosis (TB) is suboptimal. Prime-boost viral vectored vaccines have been shown to induce effective immune responses and lentivectors (LV)(More)
The course of a subcutaneous weight-related infection with Strongyloides ratti was followed in rats fed diets containing either 3 mg Zn/kg diet [zinc deficient (Zn-)] or 40 mg Zn/kg diet [zinc adequate (Zn+)]. At 19 d postinfection (dpi) the proportions of larvae persisting in the intestines as adult worms were 52 +/- 2% (means +/- SEM) for Zn-, 39.5 +/-(More)
Expression of the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB is induced by TCR recognition of Ag, whereas 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) is highly expressed on activated APC. 4-1BB signaling is particularly important for survival of activated and memory CD8(+) T cells. We wished to test whether coexpression of Ag and 4-1BBL by dendritic cells (DC) would be an effective vaccine(More)