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We present evidence that Rb forms a repressor containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the hSWI/SNF nucleosome remodeling complex, which inhibits transcription of genes for cyclins E and A and arrests cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin D/cdk4 disrupts association with HDAC, relieving repression of the cyclin E gene and(More)
The elaboration of the myelinated white matter is essential for normal neurodevelopment, establishing and mediating rapid communication pathways throughout the brain. These pathways facilitate the synchronized communication required for higher order behavioral and cognitive functioning. Altered neural messaging (or 'disconnectivity') arising from abnormal(More)
We present evidence that phosphorylation of the C-terminal region of Rb by Cdk4/6 initiates successive intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal region and the central pocket. The initial interaction displaces histone deacetylase from the pocket, blocking active transcriptional repression by Rb. This facilitates a second interaction that leads to(More)
Does breastfeeding alter early brain development? The prevailing consensus from large epidemiological studies posits that early exclusive breastfeeding is associated with improved measures of IQ and cognitive functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and(More)
Previously, we found that Rb can actively repress transcription of cell cycle genes by binding and inactivating transcription factors at the promoter. Here, we demonstrate that Rb can also repress transcription of endogenous cell cycle genes containing E2F sites through recruitment of histone deacetylase, which deacetylates histones on the promoter, thereby(More)
Rb inhibits progression from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. It associates with a number of cellular proteins; however, the nature of these interactions and their relative significance in cell cycle regulation are still unclear. We present evidence that Rb must normally interact with the E2F family of transcription factors to arrest cells in G1, and that(More)
Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a tumor suppressor that is dysregulated in a majority of human cancers. Rb functions to inhibit cell cycle progression in part by directly disabling the E2F family of cell cycle-promoting transcription factors. Because the de novo synthesis of multiple glutamine-derived anabolic precursors is required for cell cycle(More)
IMPORTANCE Converging evidence suggests brain structure alterations may precede overt cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease by several decades. Early detection of these alterations holds inherent value for the development and evaluation of preventive treatment therapies. OBJECTIVE To compare magnetic resonance imaging measurements of white matter(More)
Cancer is a complex multistep process involving genetic and epigenetic changes that eventually result in the activation of oncogenic pathways and/or inactivation of tumor suppressor signals. During cancer progression, cancer cells acquire a number of hallmarks that promote tumor growth and invasion. A crucial mechanism by which carcinoma cells enhance their(More)
PURPOSE. Transgenic pigs carrying a mutant human rhodopsin transgene have been developed as a large animal model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This model displays some key features of human RP, but the time course of disease progression makes this model costly, time consuming, and difficult to study because of the size of the animals at end-stage disease.(More)