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For many RNA viruses, relatively recent times of origin of extant viruses are implied by the high rate of substitution observed in longitudinal studies. However, extrapolation of short-term rates of substitution can give misleading estimates of times of divergence. We show here that the common ancestor of different types of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is older(More)
In a previous paper a method for simulating the electric potentials on the surface of the brain was introduced. This method consisted of the construction of a layer of radially oriented current dipoles in a conducting sphere that simulated the head so that the voltages generated by the layer would take the values measured on the surface of the medium (the(More)
Isolates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) show considerable nucleotide sequence variability throughout the genome. Comparisons of complete genome sequences have been used as the basis of classification of HCV into a number of genotypes that show 67 to 77% sequence similarity. In order to investigate whether sequence relationships between genotypes are equivalent(More)
Using neuropsychological testing procedures, we measured the behavioral characteristics of patients with epilepsy unaffected by anticonvulsant drugs and compared these results with control subjects matched for age, sex, and education. In a nationwide VA Cooperative study, 622 patients with well-defined seizure types were given a selected battery of(More)
The recently discovered hepatitis G virus (HGV) or GB virus C (GBV-C) is widely distributed in human populations, and homologues such as HGV/GBV-CCPZ and GBV-A are found in a variety of different primate species. Both epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses support the hypothesis that GB viruses coevolved with their primate hosts, although their degree of(More)
Variants of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been classified by nucleotide sequence comparisons in different regions of the genome. Many investigators have defined the ranges of sequence similarity values or evolutionary distances corresponding to divisions of HCV into types, subtypes and isolates. Using these criteria, novel variants of HCV from Vietnam,(More)
Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) features rapidly progressive muscle weakness that affects muscles in an apparent proximal-to-distal gradient. In the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle of homozygous HCSMA animals, motor unit tetanic failure is apparent before the appearance of muscle weakness and appears to be presynaptic in origin. We(More)
Research has traditionally focused on the development of symptoms in those who experienced trauma directly but has overlooked the impact of trauma on victims' families. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have begun to examine how individual exposure to traumatic events affects the spouses or partners, children, and professional helpers of trauma(More)
A prospective study of pseudoseizures using prolonged video-electroencephalographic (EEG) recording was carried out in 60 patients. Of 33 patients with episodes of uncertain mechanism, a diagnosis based on recorded episodes was made in 18 (55%). Twelve (36%) had pseudoseizures; 6 (18%) had epileptic seizures. Ten additional patients had epileptiform EEGs(More)