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MOTIVATION The discovery of novel biological knowledge from the ab initio analysis of post-genomic data relies upon the use of unsupervised processing methods, in particular clustering techniques. Much recent research in bioinformatics has therefore been focused on the transfer of clustering methods introduced in other scientific fields and on the(More)
The question of whether it is possible to automate the scientific process is of both great theoretical interest and increasing practical importance because, in many scientific areas, data are being generated much faster than they can be effectively analysed. We describe a physically implemented robotic system that applies techniques from artificial(More)
Metabolism has an essential role in biological systems. Identification and quantitation of the compounds in the metabolome is defined as metabolic profiling, and it is applied to define metabolic changes related to genetic differences, environmental influences and disease or drug perturbations. Chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) platforms are frequently(More)
Three rapid spectroscopic approaches for whole-organism fingerprinting-pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and dispersive Raman microscopy--were used to analyse a group of 59 clinical bacterial isolates associated with urinary tract infection. Direct visual analysis of these spectra was not possible,(More)
Signaling by the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) involves its release from inhibitor kappa B (IkappaB) in the cytosol, followed by translocation into the nucleus. NF-kappaB regulation of IkappaBalpha transcription represents a delayed negative feedback loop that drives oscillations in NF-kappaB translocation. Single-cell time-lapse(More)
Many metabolomics, and other high-content or high-throughput, experiments are set up such that the primary aim is the discovery of biomarker metabolites that can discriminate, with a certain level of certainty, between nominally matched 'case' and 'control' samples. However, it is unfortunately very easy to find markers that are apparently persuasive but(More)
The chemical identification of mass spectrometric signals in metabolomic applications is important to provide conversion of analytical data to biological knowledge about metabolic pathways. The complexity of electrospray mass spectrometric data acquired from a range of samples (serum, urine, yeast intracellular extracts, yeast metabolic footprints,(More)
Circuit diagrams and Unified Modeling Language diagrams are just two examples of standard visual languages that help accelerate work by promoting regularity, removing ambiguity and enabling software tool support for communication of complex information. Ironically, despite having one of the highest ratios of graphical to textual information, biology still(More)
Exposure to a variety of toxins and/or infectious agents leads to disease, degeneration and death, often characterised by circumstances in which cells or tissues do not merely die and cease to function but may be more or less entirely obliterated. It is then legitimate to ask the question as to whether, despite the many kinds of agent involved, there may be(More)
Multiple models of human metabolism have been reconstructed, but each represents only a subset of our knowledge. Here we describe Recon 2, a community-driven, consensus 'metabolic reconstruction', which is the most comprehensive representation of human metabolism that is applicable to computational modeling. Compared with its predecessors, the(More)