Douglas A S Clark

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The paucity of enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides represents a major bottleneck for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. Cow rumen microbes specialize in degradation of cellulosic plant material, but most members of this complex community resist cultivation. To characterize biomass-degrading genes and(More)
A detailed mechanistic model of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis has been developed. The behavior of individual cellulase enzymes and parameters describing the cellulose surface properties are included. Results obtained for individual enzymes (T. reesei endoglucanase 2 and cellobiohydrolase I) and systems with both enzymes present are compared with(More)
We describe the properties of a hyperthermophilic, barophilic protease from Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic deep-sea methanogen. This enzyme is the first protease to be isolated from an organism adapted to a high-pressure-high-temperature environment. The partially purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a narrow substrate(More)
The effect of decompression on the structure of Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic deep-sea methanogen, was studied in a novel high-pressure, high-temperature bioreactor. The cell envelope of M. jannaschii appeared to rupture upon rapid decompression (ca. 1 s) from 260 atm of hyperbaric pressure. When decompression from 260 atm was(More)
The effects of pressure on protein structure and function can vary dramatically depending on the magnitude of the pressure, the reaction mechanism (in the case of enzymes), and the overall balance of forces responsible for maintaining the protein's structure. Interactions between the protein and solvent are also critical in determining the response of a(More)
Fermentation enables the production of reduced metabolites, such as the biofuels ethanol and butanol, from fermentable sugars. This work demonstrates a general approach for designing and constructing a production host that uses a heterologous pathway as an obligately fermentative pathway to produce reduced metabolites, specifically, the biofuel isobutanol.(More)
The marine archaebacterium Methanococcus jannaschii was studied at high temperatures and hyperbaric pressures of helium to investigate the effect of pressure on the behavior of a deep-sea thermophile. Methanogenesis and growth (as measured by protein production) at both 86 and 90 degrees C were accelerated by pressure up to 750 atm (1 atm = 101.29kPa), but(More)
The deep-sea archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii was grown at 86 degrees C and under 8, 250, and 500 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa) of hyperbaric pressure in a high-pressure, high-temperature bioreactor. The core lipid composition of cultures grown at 250 or 500 atm, as analyzed by supercritical fluid chromatography, exhibited an increased proportion of macrocyclic(More)
We have developed a miniaturized 3D cell-culture array (the Data Analysis Toxicology Assay Chip or DataChip) for high-throughput toxicity screening of drug candidates and their cytochrome P450-generated metabolites. The DataChip consists of human cells encapsulated in collagen or alginate gels (as small as 20 nl) arrayed on a functionalized glass slide for(More)