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A biosynthetic antibody binding site, which incorporated the variable domains of anti-digoxin monoclonal antibody 26-10 in a single polypeptide chain (Mr = 26,354), was produced in Escherichia coli by protein engineering. This variable region fragment (Fv) analogue comprised the 26-10 heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL) connected by a(More)
T helper (Th) cells can be categorized according to their cytokine expression. The differential induction of Th cells expressing Th1 and/or Th2 cytokines is key to the regulation of both protective and pathological immune responses. Cytokines are expressed transiently and there is a lack of stably expressed surface molecules, significant for functionally(More)
T1/ST2 is an orphan receptor of unknown function that is expressed on the surface of murine T helper cell type 2 (Th2), but not Th1 effector cells. In vitro blockade of T1/ST2 signaling with an immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein suppresses both differentiation to and activation of Th2, but not Th1 effector populations. In a nascent Th2-dominated response,(More)
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most polymorphic in the human genome. They play a pivotal role in the immune response and have been implicated in numerous human pathologies, especially autoimmunity and infectious diseases. Despite their importance, however, they are rarely characterized comprehensively because of the prohibitive cost of standard(More)
We have assessed the biologic role of IL-4 by fusing its gene to an immunoglobulin promoter/enhancer and introducing it into transgenic mice. By attenuating the transgene promoter through the insertion of E. coli lac operator sequences, we have created a series of animals that constitutively express varying amounts of IL-4. Overexpression of IL-4 results in(More)
As a result of thermal instability, some live attenuated viral (LAV) vaccines lose substantial potency from the time of manufacture to the point of administration. Developing regions lacking extensive, reliable refrigeration ("cold-chain") infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to vaccine failure, which in turn increases the burden of disease.(More)
Pharmaceutical compounds are molecular solids that frequently exhibit polymorphism of crystal form. One high profile case of polymorphism was ritonavir, a peptidomimetic drug used to treat HIV-1 infection and introduced in 1996. In 1998, a lower energy, more stable polymorph (form II) appeared, causing slowed dissolution of the marketed dosage form and(More)
Transcriptomic assays that measure expression levels are widely used to study the manifestation of environmental or genetic variations in cellular processes. RNA-sequencing in particular has the potential to considerably improve such understanding because of its capacity to assay the entire transcriptome, including novel transcriptional events. However, as(More)
B-less mice express a human immunoglobulin (Ig) lambda transgene that induces a severe deficiency of both immature pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. To understand this perturbation in B lymphopoiesis, we have devised a sensitive limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction assay that quantitates specific Ig rearrangements and thus quantitates B lineage cells(More)
A bifunctional molecule was genetically engineered which contained an amino-terminal effector domain that bound immunoglobulin Fc (fragment B of staphylococcal protein A) and a carboxyl-terminal domain that bound digoxin [a single-chain Fv (sFv)]. Effector and sFv binding properties were virtually identical with those of the parent molecules, despite the(More)