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The crystallographic structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin, which assembles into the multifunctional pilus adhesion and virulence factor, reveals an alpha-beta roll fold with a striking 85 A alpha-helical spine and an O-linked disaccharide. Key residues stabilize interactions that allow sequence hypervariability, responsible for pilin's celebrated(More)
Partial left atrial ligation before cardiac septation redistributes intracardiac blood flow and produces left ventricular hypoplasia in the chick. We hypothesized that redistributed intracardiac blood flow adversely alters aortic arch development. We ligated the left atrial appendage with a 10-0 nylon suture at stage 21 chick embryos, then reincubated up to(More)
A crucial ingredient of any hyperthermia procedure is the accurate measurement of achieved temperature. In this paper, we present some accuracy and resolution suggestions and address the problem of temperature measurements when electromagnetic energy is used as the mode of heating. In such cases, conventional metallic thermometers can cause severe errors(More)
The effect of high-frequency ultrasound on doxorubicin (DOX) release from Pluronic micelles and intracellular DOX uptake was studied for promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, ovarian carcinoma drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells (A2780 and A2780/ADR, respectively), and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Cavitation events initiated by high-frequency(More)
A custom ultrasonic exposure chamber with real-time fluorescence detection was used to measure acoustically-triggered drug release from Pluronic P-105 micelles under continuous wave (CW) or pulsed ultrasound in the frequency range of 20 to 90 kHz. The measurements were based on the decrease in fluorescence intensity when drug was transferred from the(More)
Polymeric micelles are being investigated as chemotherapy drug delivery carriers using ultrasound as a trigger mechanism. The aim of this paper is to measure the release of Doxorubicin (Dox) from the core of unstabilized Pluronic P105 micelles, Pluronic P105 micelles stabilized with an interpenetrating network of N,N-diethylacrylamide, and micelles of(More)
Pluronic P105 micelles sequester hydrophobic drugs and release them upon insonation with low frequency ultrasound; however these micelles dissolve relatively quickly upon dilution. The objective of this research was to determine whether stabilization of these micelles would compromise their ability to sequester and release drug. P105 micelles were(More)
The new modality of drug targeting of tumors that we are currently developing is based on drug encapsulation in polymeric micelles, followed by the localized release at the tumor site triggered by focused ultrasound. The rationale behind this approach is that drug encapsulation in micelles decreases systemic concentration of drug, diminishes intracellular(More)