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Mammalian cells can decode the concentration of extracellular transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and transduce this cue into appropriate cell fate decisions. How variable TGF-β ligand doses quantitatively control intracellular signaling dynamics and how continuous ligand doses are translated into discontinuous cellular fate decisions remain poorly(More)
The TGFβ and Ras-MAPK pathways play critical roles in cell development and cell cycle regulation, as well as in tumor formation and metastasis. In the absence of cellular transformation, these pathways operate in opposition to one another, where TGFβ maintains an undifferentiated cell state and suppresses proliferation, while Ras-MAPK pathways promote(More)
Protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is important for a diverse number of cellular processes ranging from cell signaling to development. Disruption of the ubiquitin pathway occurs in a variety of human diseases, including several cancers and neurological disorders. Excessive proteolysis of tumor suppressor proteins, such as p27, occurs(More)
During wound healing and cancer metastasis, cells are frequently observed to migrate in collective groups. This mode of migration relies on the cooperative guidance of leader and follower cells throughout the collective group. The upstream determinants and molecular mechanisms behind such cellular guidance remain poorly understood. We use live-cell imaging(More)
The growth inhibition of dividing cells and most of the transcriptional responses upon TGF-beta treatment depend on the Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 transcription factors. These proteins shuttle continuously between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, transmitting the ligand status of the TGF-beta receptors to the nuclear transcription machinery. In the absence of(More)
The function of prostaglandin-F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in reproductive behavior of adult female paradise fish (Macropodus opercularis) was evaluated. In experiment 1, females were allowed to spawn normally with a male and were left with that male until the following day when testing occurred. Subjects were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: PGF2(More)
Haemophilus influenzae beta-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) is hypothesized to be an allosteric protein that is regulated by the binding of bicarbonate ion to a non-catalytic (inhibitory) site that controls the ligation of Asp44 to the catalytically essential zinc ion. We report here the X-ray crystallographic structures of two variants (W39F and Y181F) involved(More)
Understanding how cells migrate individually and collectively during development and cancer metastasis can be significantly aided by a computation tool to accurately measure not only cellular migration speed, but also migration direction and changes in migration direction in a temporal and spatial manner. We have developed such a tool for cell migration(More)
Diverse environmental conditions stimulate protein "shedding" from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage. The protease TACE [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)--converting enzyme, encoded by ADAM17] mediates protein shedding, thereby regulating the maturation and release of various extracellular substrates, such as growth factors and cytokines, that(More)