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Objectives: The lectures aim to explain and discuss the knowledge of biology at foundation level which is essential to proceed to higher level of study in biology-related disciplines. On successful completion of this subject, students are expected to be able to: 1. understand the basic features and functions of cells; 2. describe the basic structures and(More)
Pseudouridine is the most abundant RNA modification, yet except for a few well-studied cases, little is known about the modified positions and their function(s). Here, we develop Ψ-seq for transcriptome-wide quantitative mapping of pseudouridine. We validate Ψ-seq with spike-ins and de novo identification of previously reported positions and discover(More)
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding (SSB) proteins are uniformly required to bind and protect single-stranded intermediates in DNA metabolic pathways. All bacterial and eukaryotic SSB proteins studied to date oligomerize to assemble four copies of a conserved domain, called an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold, that cooperate in nonspecific(More)
We generated a high-resolution whole-genome sequence and individually deleted 5100 genes in Sigma1278b, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain closely related to reference strain S288c. Similar to the variation between human individuals, Sigma1278b and S288c average 3.2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase. A genome-wide comparison of deletion mutant(More)
Cocaine in 6 mg/kg doses was administered orally and intraperitoneally to rats and sleep EEG's recorded. Cocaine significantly reduced total sleep time, slow-wave sleep, and sleep latency. Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) was significantly suppressed during the first half of the sleep recording. These effects were evident by both routes of administration. The(More)
Antibacterial compounds typically act by directly inhibiting essential bacterial enzyme activities. Although this general mechanism of action has fueled traditional antibiotic discovery efforts for decades, new antibiotic development has not kept pace with the emergence of drug resistant bacterial strains. These limitations have severely restricted the(More)
The generation of mature functional RNAs from nascent transcripts requires the precise and coordinated action of numerous RNAs and proteins. One such protein family, the ribonuclease III (RNase III) endonucleases, includes Rnt1, which functions in fungal ribosome and spliceosome biogenesis, and Dicer, which generates the siRNAs of the RNAi pathway. The(More)
Early dental experiences were described in essay form by 225 college students reporting either "high" or "low" fear of dentistry. Antecedent factors which appeared to differentiate the two groups most clearly included pain experiences and dentist behaviors. Results were interpreted as supportive of a social-learning model of dental fear acquisition and(More)
Participant modeling, symbolic modeling, and graduated exposure were compared with each other and with two control treatments for effectiveness in reducing fear of dentistry in 33 adults who had avoided dental treatment for from 1 to 10 yr. Assessment of in-chair psychological responsiveness and overt behavior showed no significant pre-post change for any(More)
Objectives: The lectures aim to explain and discuss the knowledge of biology at foundation level which is essential to proceed to higher level of study in biology-related disciplines. On successful completion of this subject, students are expected to be able to: 1. understand the basic features and functions of cells; 2. describe the basic structures and(More)