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Catecholamines are believed to play an important role in regulating the properties and functional organization of the neural circuitry mediating consummatory feeding behaviors in Aplysia. In the present study, we morphologically and electrophysiologically identified a pair of catecholaminergic interneurons, referred to as B65, in the buccal ganglia. Their(More)
Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant(More)
Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal(More)
Operant conditioning is a form of associative learning through which an animal learns about the consequences of its behavior. Here, we report an appetitive operant conditioning procedure in Aplysia that induces long-term memory. Biophysical changes that accompanied the memory were found in an identified neuron (cell B51) that is considered critical for the(More)
To examine the capability of genetic regulatory systems for complex dynamic activity, we developed simple kinetic models that incorporate known features of these systems. These include autoregulation and stimulus-dependent phosphorylation of transcription factors (TFs), dimerization of TFs, crosstalk, and feedback. The simplest model manifested multiple(More)
Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release(More)
1. The properties of membrane currents that were modulated by serotonin (5-HT) were investigated with two-electrode voltage-clamp techniques in sensory neuron somata isolated from the pleural ganglion of Aplysia californica. The modulatory effects of 5-HT were revealed by computer subtraction of current responses elicited in the presence of 5-HT from(More)
Operant conditioning is characterized by the contingent reinforcement of a designated behavior. Previously, feeding behavior in Aplysia has been demonstrated to be modified by operant conditioning, and a neural pathway (esophageal nerve; E n.) that mediates some aspects of reinforcement has been identified. As a first step toward a cellular analysis of(More)
The buccal ganglia of Aplysia contain a central pattern generator (CPG) that mediates rhythmic movements of the buccal apparatus during feeding. Activity in this CPG is believed to be regulated, in part, by extrinsic serotonergic inputs and by an intrinsic and extrinsic system of putative dopaminergic cells. The present study investigated the roles of(More)
Both positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional regulation have been proposed to be important for the generation of circadian rhythms. To test the sufficiency of the proposed mechanisms, two differential equation-based models were constructed to describe the Neurospora crassa and Drosophila melanogaster circadian oscillators. In the model of(More)