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The question of what makes a concept coherent (what makes its members form a comprehensible class) has received a variety of answers. In this article we review accounts based on similarity, feature correlations, and various theories of cate-gorization. We find that each theory provides an inadequate account of conceptual coherence (or no account at all)(More)
Similarity comparisons are a basic component of cognition, and there are many elegant models of this process. None of these models describe comparisons of structured representations, although mounting evidence suggests that mental representations are well characterized by structured hierarchical systems of relations . We propose that structured(More)
Four experiments investigated how people judge both the typicality and membership of items in conjunctive concepts such as school furniture or sports which are games. Judgments of membership in conjunctions were overextended, and there was asymmetry between the constituent concepts in their influence on relative conjunctive concept membership. The results(More)
This paper presents the results of an experiment which investigated elementary school children's conceptual knowledge about the earth. First-, 3rd-, and 5th-grade children were asked a series of questions about the shape of the earth. Children's responses to these questions revealed considerable apparent inconsistency. For example, many children said that(More)
The similarity of a pair increases with its commonalities and decreases with its differences (Tversky, 1977, Psychological Review, 79(4), 281-299). This research addresses how the commonalities and differences of a pair are determined. We propose that comparisons are carried out by an alignment of conceptual structures. This view suggests that beyond the(More)
This article is concerned with the use of base-rate information that is derived from experience in classifying examples of a category. The basic task involved simulated medical decision making in which participants learned to diagnose hypothetical diseases on the basis of symptom information. Alternative diseases differed in their relative frequency or base(More)
This article proposes that patterns of proximity data that have been characterized in terms of " asymmetric similarity " may be alternatively characterized in terms of differential " bias. " Bias is a characteristic pertaining to an individual object, as opposed to similarity, which is a relation between two objects. It is proposed that biases can be(More)