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The genes that encode the five known enzymes of the mandelate pathway of Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 12633), mandelate racemase (mdlA), (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), NAD(+)-dependent benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (mdlD), and NADP(+)-dependent benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (mdlE), have been cloned. The genes for(More)
The catabolic cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) and endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are well-known inflammatory mediators involved in degenerative disc disease, and inhibitors of IL-1 and LPS may potentially be used to slow or prevent disc degeneration in vivo. Here, we elucidate the striking anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of bovine(More)
Most organisms are constantly exposed to molecular oxygen, and this has become a requirement of life for many of them. Oxygen is not totally innocuous, however, and it has long been known to be toxic to many organisms, including humans. The deleterious effects of oxygen are thought to result from its metabolic reduction to highly reactive and toxic species,(More)
A core of eight beta-strands and three alpha-helices was recently predicted for the active site domain of Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase, an enzyme of unknown structure [Ribas de Pouplana, L1., Buechter, D. D., Davis, M. W., & Schimmel, P. (1993) Protein Sci. 2, 2259-2262; Shi, J.-P., Musier-Forsyth, K., & Schimmel, P. (1994) Biochemistry 26,(More)
OBJECTIVE Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) activation has been shown to be a principal rate-limiting step in matrix-degrading enzyme production in human articular chondrocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the PKC pathways, specifically PKCδ, in intervertebral disc tissue homeostasis. METHODS Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we(More)
RNA microhelices that recreate the acceptor stems of transfer RNAs are charged with specific amino acids. Here we identify a two-helix pair in alanyl-tRNA synthetase that is required for RNA microhelix binding. A single point mutation at an absolutely conserved residue in this motif selectively disrupts RNA binding without perturbation of the catalytic(More)
The ten class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are large homo- and hetero-oligomeric proteins that share three conserved sequence motifs. Within this class, Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase is the only homotetramer and is comprised of subunits of 875 amino acids. The enzyme aminoacylates sequence-specific RNA oligonucleotides that recreate as few as(More)
The genetic code is based on the aminoacylation of tRNA with amino acids catalyzed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The synthetases are constructed from discrete domains and all synthetases possess a core catalytic domain that catalyzes amino acid activation, binds the acceptor stem of tRNA, and transfers the amino acid to tRNA. Fused to the core domain(More)
The importance of creatine kinase (E.C. in endocrine tissues has been generally overlooked. Using a specific radiometric assay, we have demonstrated the existence of CK in the Brockmann body (principal islet) of the Coho salmon. We have purified this protein from insular tissue and concurrently purified CK from brain and muscle of the salmon.(More)