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During mitosis, a ras-related GTPase (Tem1) binds GTP and activates a signal transduction pathway to allow mitotic exit. During most of the cell cycle, Tem1 function is antagonized by a GTPase-activating protein complex, Bfa1/Bub2. How the Bfa1/Bub2 complex is regulated is not well understood. We find that Polo/Cdc5 kinase acts upstream of Bfa1/Bub2 in the(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and proliferation via the raptor-mTOR (TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TORC2) protein complexes. Recent biochemical studies suggested that TORC2 is the elusive PDK2 for Akt/PKB Ser473 phosphorylation in the hydrophobic motif. Phosphorylation at Ser473, along with Thr308 of its activation loop, is deemed(More)
The human Rad17-Rfc2-5 and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complexes play crucial roles in the activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage and DNA replication stress response pathways. In response to DNA damage, Rad9 is recruited to chromatin in a Rad17-dependent manner in human cells. However, the DNA structures recognized by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 complex during the damage(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals from nutrients and insulin via two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Disruption of mTORC2 impairs the insulin-induced activation of Akt, an mTORC2 substrate. Here, we found that mTORC2 can also regulate insulin signaling at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Despite(More)
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions as a critical regulator of cellular growth and metabolism by forming multi-component, yet functionally distinct complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. Although mTORC2 has been implicated in mTORC1 activation, little is known about how mTORC2 is regulated. Here we report that phosphorylation of Sin1 at Thr 86 and(More)
Stringent control of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is critical during innate immune responses. TGF-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is essential for NF-κB activation in T and B cells but has precisely the opposite activity in myeloid cells. Specific deletion of TAK1 (Map3k7(ΔM/ΔM)) led to development of splenomegaly and lymphomegaly(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important mediator of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. PI3K signaling regulates B cell development, homeostasis, and immune responses. However, the function and molecular mechanism of mTOR-mediated PI3K signaling in B cells has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that Sin1, an essential component of(More)
Mutation of the coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing 1A (CC2D1A) gene, which encodes a C2 domain and DM14 domain-containing protein, has been linked to severe autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Using a mouse model that produces a truncated form of CC2D1A that lacks the C2 domain and three of the four DM14 domains, we show that CC2D1A is(More)
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a cell-associated C regulatory protein that protects host cells from autologous C attack. It functions intrinsically in host cell surface membranes to rapidly dissociate autologous classical and alternative pathway C3 convertases whenever these amplifying enzymes assemble on host cell surfaces. It is composed of four(More)
Constitutive activation of the kinases Akt or protein kinase C (PKC) in blood cancers promotes tumor-cell proliferation and survival and is associated with poor patient survival. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates the stability of Akt and conventional PKC (cPKC; PKCα and PKCβ) proteins by phosphorylating the highly(More)