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Stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) by pathogen-derived products induces the production of cytokines, which play an important role in immune responses. Here, we investigated the role of the TPL-2 signaling pathway in TLR induction of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in these cell types. It(More)
Tryptophan is a large neutral amino acid which is utilized in the biosynthesis of neuroactive substances such as serotonin and melatonin. However, it has been unclear where pools of tryptophan might be localized. Using a specific antiserum against tryptophan, we demonstrate that in the chicken retina tryptophan is present in radial glial cells and(More)
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