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Identification of mutations in the HOGA1 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type III has revitalized research in the field of PH and related stone disease. In contrast to the well-characterized entities of PH type I and type II, the pathophysiology and prevalence of type III is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed a(More)
The Archaean oceanic crust was probably thicker than present-day oceanic crust owing to higher heat flow and thus higher degrees of melting at mid-ocean ridges. These conditions would also have led to a different bulk composition of oceanic crust in the early Archaean, that would probably have consisted of magnesium-rich picrite (with variably(More)
To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patient's medical therapy (treatment naïve patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were(More)
A 48 kDa acidic and putative calcium-binding glycoprotein was isolated from pearls of the freshwater mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. This protein was compared with a related 46 kDa polypeptide, obtained from the nacreous shell of the same species. Separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the difference in molecular weight is due to the(More)
During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of(More)
Shells of adult individuals from two different bivalve families, Hyriopsis cumingii and Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, were studied by Micro-Raman spectroscopy and Focussed Ion Beam-assisted TEM. The shells contain amorphous calcium carbonate in a zone at the interface between the periostracum and the prismatic layer. In this area, the initial prism(More)
A distinct nanogranular fine structure is shared by a wealth of biominerals from several species, classes and taxa. This nanoscopic organization affects the properties and behavior of the biogenic ceramic material and confers on them attributes that are essential to their function. We present a set of structure-relationship properties that are rooted in the(More)
With their unique ability for substrate recognition and their sequence-specific self-assembly properties, peptides play an important role in controlling the mineralization of inorganic materials in natural systems and in controlling the assembly of soft materials into complex structures required for biological functions. Here we report the use of an(More)
X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the Mn K-edge was used to investigate the environment of Mn in situ within the growth increments of the long-lived freshwater bivalve species Diplodon chilensis patagonicus. Single XANES spectra and Mn Kalpha fluorescence distributions were acquired at submillimetre resolution (up to 100 microm x 50(More)
Diamonds and their inclusions are unique probes into the deep Earth, tracking the deep carbon cycle to >800 km. Understanding the mechanisms of carbon mobilization and freezing is a prerequisite for quantifying the fluxes of carbon in the deep Earth. Here we show direct evidence for the formation of diamond by redox reactions involving FeNi sulfides.(More)