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Embedded systems are the driving force for technological development in many domains such as automotive, healthcare, and industrial control in the emerging post-PC era. As more and more computational and networked devices are integrated into all aspects of our lives in a pervasive and “invisible” way, security becomes critical for the(More)
A program exhibits trigger-based behavior if it performs undocumented, often malicious, functions when the environmental conditions and/or specific input values match some pre-specified criteria. Checking whether such hidden functions exist in the program is important for increasing trustworthiness of software. In this paper, we propose a framework to(More)
Recent targeted malware attacks, e.g. Stuxnet, Duqu and Flame, have used digitally signed components that appeared to originate from legitimate software makers. These attacks were possible because the standard signature verifi cation procedures do not allow for detecting key compromise and fake certifi cates. In this paper, we propose a solution to this(More)
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