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In the past years, the relationship between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and other hormonal and neuromodulatory systems has been intensively studied. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can stimulate endocannabinoid (eCB) production via activation of G(q/11) proteins and, in some cases, G(s) proteins. In this review, we summarize the pathways through(More)
The single platform-on-water (flower pot) method is extensively used for depriving rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Detailed comparison of sleep-wake architecture, recorded during the rebound period after spending three days on either a small or large platform, could separate the effects of REMS deficit from other stress factors caused by the procedure. A(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has emerged as a potent biomarker for depression as its elevated plasma levels in patients with clinical depression have been confirmed by meta-analyses. Increased plasma IL-6 concentration was associated with various psychological stress factors and physical disorders accompanied by pain. Another modulator of the IL-6 level is(More)
Interleukin-1β is one of the main mediators in the cross-talk between the immune system and the central nervous system. Higher interleukin-1β levels are found in mood spectrum disorders, and the stress-induced expression rate of the interleukin-1β gene (IL1B) is altered by polymorphisms in the region. Therefore we examined the effects of rs16944 and(More)
The effects of the widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants on sleep have been intensively investigated. However, only a few animal studies examined the effect of escitalopram, the more potent S-enantiomer of citalopram, and conclusions of these studies on sleep architecture are limited due to the experimental design. Here,(More)
Serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors are known to play a role in impulsivity-related behavior. The C(-1019)G functional polymorphism (rs6295) has been suggested to regulate the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene (HTR(1A)) expression in presynaptic raphe neurons, namely, increased receptor concentration and reduced neuronal firing could be associated with the G allele.(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a widely used recreational drug known to cause selective long-term serotonergic damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrastructure of serotonergic pericarya and proximal neurites in the dorsal raphe nucleus as well as the ultrastructure of serotonergic axons in the frontal cortex of(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Millions suffer from sleep disorders that often accompany severe illnesses such as major depression; a leading psychiatric disorder characterized by appetite and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) abnormalities. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 (nesfatin) are strongly co - expressed in the hypothalamus and are involved(More)
OBJECTIVE The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has been associated both with depression and aggression/hostility. The multidirectional association between depression, aggression and the s allele may be important, since all these phenomena are related to suicidal behavior. Our aim was to investigate the association between 5-HTTLPR and aggressive/hostile traits in(More)
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), seasonality and increased sensitivity to the fluctuation of seasons in biological and psychological parameters can manifest to varying degrees across a normal population. The serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene has long been suggested as a candidate for the genetic basis of this phenomenon. We hypothesized that functional(More)