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In the past years, the relationship between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and other hormonal and neuromodulatory systems has been intensively studied. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can stimulate endocannabinoid (eCB) production via activation of G(q/11) proteins and, in some cases, G(s) proteins. In this review, we summarize the pathways through(More)
The single platform-on-water (flower pot) method is extensively used for depriving rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Detailed comparison of sleep-wake architecture, recorded during the rebound period after spending three days on either a small or large platform, could separate the effects of REMS deficit from other stress factors caused by the procedure. A(More)
Interleukin-1β is one of the main mediators in the cross-talk between the immune system and the central nervous system. Higher interleukin-1β levels are found in mood spectrum disorders, and the stress-induced expression rate of the interleukin-1β gene (IL1B) is altered by polymorphisms in the region. Therefore we examined the effects of rs16944 and(More)
The effects of the widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants on sleep have been intensively investigated. However, only a few animal studies examined the effect of escitalopram, the more potent S-enantiomer of citalopram, and conclusions of these studies on sleep architecture are limited due to the experimental design. Here,(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Millions suffer from sleep disorders that often accompany severe illnesses such as major depression; a leading psychiatric disorder characterized by appetite and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) abnormalities. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 (nesfatin) are strongly co - expressed in the hypothalamus and are involved(More)
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), seasonality and increased sensitivity to the fluctuation of seasons in biological and psychological parameters can manifest to varying degrees across a normal population. The serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene has long been suggested as a candidate for the genetic basis of this phenomenon. We hypothesized that functional(More)
The catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been extensively investigated in depression with somewhat contradictory results but the role of impulsivity, as a possible intermediate phenotype in this disorder, has not been considered yet. In our study, four tagging SNPs in the COMT gene (rs933271, rs740603, rs4680, rs4646316) were genotyped in two(More)
Serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors are known to play a role in impulsivity-related behavior. The C(-1019)G functional polymorphism (rs6295) has been suggested to regulate the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene (HTR(1A)) expression in presynaptic raphe neurons, namely, increased receptor concentration and reduced neuronal firing could be associated with the G allele.(More)
RATIONALE 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a widely used recreational drug known to cause selective long-term serotonergic damage. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrastructure of serotonergic pericarya and proximal neurites in the dorsal raphe nucleus as well as the ultrastructure of serotonergic axons in(More)
BACKGROUND Although 5-HTTLPR has been shown to influence the risk of life stress-induced depression in the majority of studies, others have produced contradictory results, possibly due to weak effects and/or sample heterogeneity. METHODS In the present study we investigated how age, type and intensity of life-stressors modulate the effect of 5-HTTLPR on(More)