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The activation patterns of the costal and crural diaphragm and transversus abdominis muscle and their relationship to esophageal pressure (Pes) changes and footplant were examined in five chronically instrumented dogs which breathed at high frequencies at rest and during exercise. In two tracheostomized dogs, measurements were made of diaphragmatic length(More)
In horses prone to developing recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), we tested the hypotheses that the cytokine profile in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of affected horses would reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that cytokine and chemokine alterations would occur within 24 h of allergen exposure; and that allergen exposure would induce alterations in(More)
The effect of strenuous exercise on the mRNA concentrations of interleukin-12p35 subunit (IL-12p35), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in equine pulmonary and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. We hypothesized that strenuous exercise would suppress the expression of IL-12p35, IFN-gamma and augment the expression(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate time-dependent alterations in gene expression of chemokines in bronchial epithelium of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)-affected horses and whether alterations resulted from increases in gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17 in cells isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). ANIMALS 8 RAO-susceptible horses and 9 control(More)
The oxygen cost of breathing and blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles during exercise are discussed along with the implications for limitation of locomotor muscle and exercise performance. Findings show that the oxygen cost of the hyperpnea achieved during very heavy exercise may approach 15% or more of VO2max under conditions that require(More)
Equine recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a bilateral mononeuropathy with an unknown pathogenesis that significantly affects performance in Thoroughbreds. A genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of RLN is suggested by the higher prevalence of the condition in offspring of RLN-affected than unaffected stallions. To better understand RLN pathogenesis(More)
Previously it was reported that compared to surviving septic foals, non-surviving foals had a 35-fold increase in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and 15-fold increase in IL-6 gene expression in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). As gene expression profiles can be time-consuming, we sought to determine if serum IL-6 and IL-10 in foals would aid in the(More)
The effect of prior Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia on pulmonary health was investigated in 5 horses (< 24 months old) using endoscopy, radiography, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage analyses, and pulmonary function testing. Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia had been diagnosed in principal horses when they were foals. Diagnosis was based on(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether physical examination, laboratory, or radiographic abnormalities in foals with Rhodococcus equi infection were associated with survival, ability to race at least once after recovery, or, for foals that survived and went on to race, subsequent racing performance. DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 49 Thoroughbreds and 66(More)
The purposes of this study were to (1) prospectively establish serum IgM and IgG concentrations in normal, fit, adult horses over time and (2) determine the accuracy of serum IgM concentrations for diagnosing lymphoma. Serial IgM and IgG concentrations were measured with a radial immunodiffusion assay in 25 regularly exercised horses at 6-week intervals.(More)