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Quantifying Quantitative Literacy: Age Heaping and the History of Human Capital
Age data frequently display excess frequencies at attractive numbers, such as multiples of five. We use this “age heaping” to measure cognitive ability in quantitative reasoning, or “numeracy.” We
New Evidence and New Methods to Measure Human Capital Inequality Before and During the Industrial Revolution: France and the US in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries
We explore pre- and early industrial inequality of numeracy using the age heaping method and anthropometric strategies. For France, we map differential numeracy between the upper and lower segments
Numeracy and the Impact of High Food Prices in Industrializing Britain, 1780–1850
Abstract Using census-based data on the ability to recall one's age, we show that low levels of nutrition impaired numeracy in industrializing England, 1780 to 1850: cognitive ability declined among
Remittances, Banking Status and the Usage of Insurance Schemes
Abstract Empirical evidence that migrants send home more remittances after disasters raises the question of whether remittances are used to self-insure, substituting for both formal and informal
Dorothee Crayen* and Joerg Baten**
We explore preand early industrial inequality of numeracy using the age heaping method and anthropometric strategies. For France, we map the differential numeracy between the upper and lower segments