Dorothea Kramer

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Cellular immune hyporesponsiveness can be induced by the presentation of soluble protein antigens to mucosal surfaces. Most studies of mucosa-mediated tolerance have used the oral route of antigen delivery and few have examined autoantigens in natural models of autoimmune disease. Insulin is an autoantigen in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice with(More)
Caliciviridae are RNA viruses with a single-stranded, positively oriented polyadenylated genome, responsible for a broad spectrum of diseases such as acute gastroenteritis in humans. Recently, analyses on the structures and functionalities of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from several Caliciviruses have been reported. The RdRp is predicted to play(More)
The predominance of IgA antibodies in mucosal sites reflects a combination of high rate IgA isotype switching among precursor cells in induction sites, their selective localization in mucosal effector tissues and vigorous proliferation of these cells after extravasation. Each of these steps leading to IgA expression at the mucosa is under cytokine control.(More)
The predominance of IgA plasma cells at mucosal sites reflects a combination of the selective localisation and vigorous proliferation after extravasation of IgA plasma cell precursors. Experiments are described here which demonstrate that post-extravasation events leading to IgA precursor cell retention, proliferation and antibody secretion are under(More)
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