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In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), detection of T2-hyperintense white matter (WM) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a crucial criterion for diagnosis and predicting prognosis in early disease. Automated lesion detection is not only desirable with regard to time and cost effectiveness but also constitutes a prerequisite to minimize user bias.(More)
We have generated a panel of mAbs that identify three presumably novel human dendritic cell Ags: BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4. In blood, BDCA-2 and BDCA-4 are expressed on CD11c(-) CD123(bright) plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas BDCA-3 is expressed on small population of CD11c(+) CD123(-) dendritic cells. All three Ags are not detectable on a third blood(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
BACKGROUND The oral immunomodulator fingolimod (FTY720) has recently been shown to be highly effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod is a functional antagonist of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 and thereby inhibits sphingosine-1-phosphate-dependent lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues, resulting in a(More)
UNLABELLED Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to lesion pathology, course of disease, and treatment response. Imaging modalities are needed that allow better definition of MS lesions in vivo. The aim of this study was to establish an MRI- and PET/CT-based imaging modality and to evaluate approved and promising PET tracers in(More)
OBJECTIVE To find biomarkers identifying patients at risk for the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) during natalizumab treatment. METHODS Patients were recruited from 10 European and US cohorts. Of 289 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 224 had been treated with natalizumab (18-80 months), 21 received other(More)
JC virus (JCV) is an opportunistic virus known to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Anti-JC virus (Anti-JCV) antibody prevalence in a large, geographically diverse, multi-national multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort was compared in a cross-sectional study. Overall, anti-JCV antibody prevalence was 57.6%. Anti-JCV antibody prevalence in MS(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a heterogeneous disease with respect to disease progression and treatment response, which have both remained highly unpredictable. With an increasing number of available disease modifying therapies, strategies for treatment allocation in the individual patient or subgroup of patients has become more important. Therefore(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)