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In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), detection of T2-hyperintense white matter (WM) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a crucial criterion for diagnosis and predicting prognosis in early disease. Automated lesion detection is not only desirable with regard to time and cost effectiveness but also constitutes a prerequisite to minimize user bias.(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
OBJECTIVE To find biomarkers identifying patients at risk for the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) during natalizumab treatment. METHODS Patients were recruited from 10 European and US cohorts. Of 289 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 224 had been treated with natalizumab (18-80 months), 21 received other(More)
BACKGROUND In MS, the relationship between lesions within cerebral white matter (WM) and atrophy within deep gray matter (GM) is unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the spatial relationship between WM lesions and deep GM atrophy. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study (3 Tesla) in 249 patients with(More)
Currently, several disease-modifying therapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis are established and more are likely to be introduced. These treatment options differ with respect to their application profile, mechanism of action, efficacy, safety, and tolerance. Here, we review current concepts of MS therapies, report recent results of clinical(More)
JC polyomavirus (JCV) carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals,(More)
OBJECTIVE We have recently described a novel population of natural regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that are characterized by the expression of HLA-G and may be found at sites of tissue inflammation (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)). Here we studied the role of these cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), a prototypic autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system(More)
BACKGROUND Natalizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the alpha-4 chain of very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4) exerts impressive therapeutic effects in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to study impacts of Natalizumab therapy on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. (More)
Routine thin-section CT after contrast enhancement may fail to demonstrate smal l acoustic neuromas, usually those small er than 10 mm [1, 2]. Metrizamide CT cisternography has demonstrated such small acoustic neuromas, but cannot demonstrate an intracanalicul ar tumor accurately [3]. Pantopaque c isternography can demonstrate an intracana-li c ul ar mass,(More)