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BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and(More)
Human malignant melanomas, unlike normal melanocytes, can proliferate in the absence of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Exposure of primary melanomas in the vertical growth phase and metastatic melanomas to antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against three different sites of human bFGF mRNA inhibited cell proliferation and colony(More)
Many mitochondrial proteins are synthesized with N-terminal presequences that are removed by specific peptidases. The N-termini of the mature proteins and thus peptidase cleavage sites have only been determined for a small fraction of mitochondrial proteins and yielded a controversial situation for the cleavage site specificity of the major mitochondrial(More)
Familial Parkinson disease is associated with mutations in α-synuclein (α-syn), a presynaptic protein that has been localized not only to the cytosol, but also to mitochondria. We report here that wild-type α-syn from cell lines, and brain tissue from humans and mice, is present not in mitochondria but rather in mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum(More)
Over the past two decades, several known genes have been shown to govern important functions in the development of primary and metastatic melanomas. However, from this limited number of genes, it is not possible to establish detailed molecular profiles for the early and advanced stages of melanoma development. To gain insights into the genetic profile of(More)
Calcium may function directly in several aspects of photosynthesis. It appears to modulate activity of the phosphatase enzymes in the carbon reduction cycle and also to regulate chloroplast NAD+ kinase activity through a calmodulin-like protein. Some evidence supports a calcium function in the water-splitting complex, and other evidence indicates a reaction(More)
PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase proposed to have a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease through the regulation of mitophagy. Here, we show that the PINK1 main cleavage product, PINK152, after being generated inside mitochondria, can exit these organelles and localize to the cytosol, where it is not only destined for degradation by the proteasome(More)
Unlike normal melanocytes, primary and metastatic human melanomas express high levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) messenger RNA, and expression of these genes is essential in sustaining the proliferation of malignant melanomas in vitro. To determine whether bFGF and FGFR-1 are also required for(More)
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR-1) is expressed as a single 3.5-kb mRNA transcript in normal human melanocytes and in malignant melanomas as determined upon Northern hybridization to a cDNA clone encoding the membrane-spanning form of the human FGFR-1. Polyclonal antisera directed against the chicken FGFR recognized a 145-kDa protein in primary and(More)