Hsaio and colleagues link gut microbes to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a mouse model. They show that ASD symptoms are triggered by compositional and structural shifts of microbes and associated metabolites, but symptoms are relieved by a Bacteroides fragilis probiotic. Thus probiotics may provide therapeutic strategies for neurodevelopmental disorders.
Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from… (More)
Global warming has accelerated glacial retreat in high-elevation and high-latitude ecosystems, exposing new terrain that can undergo predictable patterns of ecosystem succession, especially in coastal areas with relatively mild climates. However, little work has been done in harsher high-elevation and inland areas where the rate of plant and microbial… (More)
Nematodes are among the most abundant metazoans in soils, but their true diversity and distribution patterns remain poorly investigated, especially in polar environments. Here, we studied three high Arctic tundra sites at Kongsford, NW Svalbard (78°55′N) to understand: (1) Whether there is detectable small-scale habitat variation, (2) What the predictors of… (More)