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During the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has risen greatly worldwide. Obesity in childhood causes a wide range of serious complications, and increases the risk of premature illness and death later in life, raising public-health concerns. Results of research have provided new insights into the physiological basis of bodyweight(More)
A high-glycemic index (GI) diet has been shown to increase adiposity in rodents; however, the long-term metabolic effects of a low- and high-GI diet have not been examined. In this study, a total of 48 male 129SvPas mice were fed diets high in either rapidly absorbed carbohydrate (RAC; high GI) or slowly absorbed carbohydrate (SAC; low GI) for up to 40 wk.(More)
Leptin, a circulating hormone produced by adipose tissue, is believed to act on the hypothalamus to increase sympathetic vasomotor activity, in addition to its well-known effects on appetite and energy expenditure. In this study, we determined the cardiovascular effects of direct application of leptin to specific cell groups within the hypothalamus that are(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical studies suggest a role for dietary glycaemic index (GI) in bodyweight regulation and diabetes risk. However, partly because manipulation of GI can produce changes in potentially confounding dietary factors such as fibre content, palatability, and energy density, its relevance to human health remains controversial. This study examined the(More)
OBJECTIVE Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is fast becoming a major public health concern, coincident with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Although lifestyle greatly influences development of NAFLD, the specific dietary causes remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a diet high in rapidly absorbed(More)
A reduction in dietary fat has been widely advocated for the prevention and treatment of obesity and related complications. However, the efficacy of low-fat diets has been questioned in recent years. One potential adverse effect of reduced dietary fat is a compensatory increase in the consumption of high glycaemic index (GI) carbohydrate, principally(More)
Restricted fetal growth is associated with increased risk for the future development of Type 2 diabetes in humans. The study aim was to assess the glucose tolerance of old (seventeen months) male rats, which were growth restricted in early life due to maternal protein restriction during gestation and lactation. Rat mothers were fed diets containing either(More)
Although weight loss can be achieved by any means of energy restriction, current dietary guidelines have not prevented weight regain or population-level increases in obesity and overweight. Many high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets may be counterproductive to weight control because they markedly increase postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Many(More)
AIMS Low birthweight in humans has been shown to lead to increased resting pulse rate in adult life, suggesting possible increased sympathoadrenal activity. The hypothesis that early growth restriction is associated with permanent alterations in catecholamine metabolism was tested. METHODS Circulating catecholamine concentrations (by radioimmunoassay) and(More)