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Since the inception of the GO annotation project, a variety of tools have been developed that support exploring and searching the GO database. In particular, a variety of tools that perform GO enrichment analysis are currently available. Most of these tools require as input a target set of genes and a background set and seek enrichment in the target set(More)
Computational methods for discovery of sequence elements that are enriched in a target set compared with a background set are fundamental in molecular biology research. One example is the discovery of transcription factor binding motifs that are inferred from ChIP-chip (chromatin immuno-precipitation on a microarray) measurements. Several major challenges(More)
As more clinically relevant cancer genes are identified, comprehensive diagnostic approaches are needed to match patients to therapies, raising the challenge of optimization and analytical validation of assays that interrogate millions of bases of cancer genomes altered by multiple mechanisms. Here we describe a test based on massively parallel DNA(More)
Applying a next-generation sequencing assay targeting 145 cancer-relevant genes in 40 colorectal cancer and 24 non-small cell lung cancer formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens identified at least one clinically relevant genomic alteration in 59% of the samples and revealed two gene fusions, C2orf44-ALK in a colorectal cancer sample and KIF5B-RET(More)
Satellite repeats in heterochromatin are transcribed into noncoding RNAs that have been linked to gene silencing and maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Using digital gene expression analysis, we showed that these transcripts are greatly overexpressed in mouse and human epithelial cancers. In 8 of 10 mouse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs),(More)
PURPOSE We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER) α (ESR1) mutations throughout the natural history of hormone-dependent breast cancer and to delineate the functional roles of the most commonly detected alterations. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We studied a total of 249 tumor specimens from 208 patients. The specimens include(More)
DNA amplifications and deletions characterize cancer genome and are often related to disease evolution. Microarray-based techniques for measuring these DNA copy-number changes use fluorescence ratios at arrayed DNA elements (BACs, cDNA, or oligonucleotides) to provide signals at high resolution, in terms of genomic locations. These data are then further(More)
The division of genomes into distinct replication time zones has long been established. However, an in-depth understanding of their organization and their relationship to transcription is incomplete. Taking advantage of a novel synchronization method ("baby machine") and of genomic DNA microarrays, we have, for the first time, mapped replication times of(More)
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) measures copy-number variations at multiple loci simultaneously, providing an important tool for studying cancer and developmental disorders and for developing diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Arrays for CGH based on PCR products representing assemblies of BAC or cDNA clones typically require(More)
The discovery of RET fusions in lung cancers has uncovered a new therapeutic target for patients whose tumors harbor these changes. In an unselected population of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), RET fusions are present in 1% to 2% of cases. This incidence increases substantially, however, in never-smokers with lung adenocarcinomas that lack other(More)