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Structural changes of neurons in the brain during aging are complex and not well understood. Neurons have significant homeostatic control of essential brain functions, including synaptic excitability, gene expression, and metabolic regulation. Any deviations from the norm can have severe consequences as seen in aging and injury. In this review, we present(More)
Whereas neuronal numbers are largely preserved in normal aging, subtle morphological changes occur in dendrites and spines, whose electrotonic consequences remain unexplored. We examined age-related morphological alterations in 2 types of pyramidal neurons contributing to working memory circuits in the macaque prefrontal cortex (PFC): neurons in the(More)
This work considers the adhesion of cells to a nanorough titanium implant surface with sharp edges. The basic assumption was that the attraction between the negatively charged titanium surface and a negatively charged osteoblast is mediated by charged proteins with a distinctive quadrupolar internal charge distribution. Similarly, cation-mediated attraction(More)
We introduce a set of scaling exponents for characterizing global 3D morphologic properties of mass distribution, branching and taper in neuronal dendritic arbors, capable of distinguishing functionally relevant changes in dendritic complexity that standard Sholl analysis and fractal analysis cannot. We demonstrate that the scaling exponent for mass(More)
Previous studies have shown that cellular function depends on rod-like membrane proteins, among them Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) proteins may curve the membrane leading to physiologically important membrane invaginations and membrane protrusions. The membrane shaping induced by BAR proteins has a major role in various biological processes such as cell(More)
Intercellular membrane nanotubes (ICNs) are highly curved tubular structures that connect neighboring cells. The stability of these structures depends on the inner cytoskeleton and the cell membrane composition. Yet, due to the difficulty in the extraction of ICNs, the cell membrane composition remains elusive. In the present study, a raft marker,(More)
Human red blood cells (RBCs) lack the actin-myosin-microtubule cytoskeleton that is responsible for shape changes in other cells. Nevertheless, they can display highly dynamic local deformations in response to external perturbations, such as those that occur during the process of apical alignment preceding merozoite invasion in malaria. Moreover, after(More)
The growth of membrane nanotubes is crucial for intercellular communication in both normal development and pathological conditions. Therefore, identifying factors that influence their stability and formation are important for both basic research and in development of potential treatments of pathological states. Here we investigate the effect of cholera(More)
Due to oxidation and adsorption of chloride and hydroxyl anions, the surface of titanium (Ti) implants is negatively charged. A possible mechanism of the attractive interaction between the negatively charged Ti surface and the negatively charged osteoblasts is described theoretically. It is shown that adhesion of positively charged proteins with internal(More)
The forces that arise from the actin cytoskeleton play a crucial role in determining the cell shape. These include protrusive forces due to actin polymerization and adhesion to the external matrix. We present here a theoretical model for the cellular shapes resulting from the feedback between the membrane shape and the forces acting on the membrane,(More)