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Stress increases addictive behaviors and is a common cause of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in the modulation of drug taking by stress. However, the mechanism by which CRF modulates neuronal activity in circuits involved in drug addiction is poorly understood. Here we show that CRF induces a potentiation of NMDAR(More)
The Bitcoin scheme is a rare example of a large scale global payment system in which all the transactions are publicly accessible (but in an anonymous way). We downloaded the full history of this scheme, and analyzed many statistical properties of its associated transaction graph. In this paper we answer for the first time a variety of interesting questions(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of related serine-threonine kinases, is a key player in the cellular responses mediated by the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) and the phorbol ester tumor promoters. The traditional view of PKCs as DAG/phospholipid-regulated proteins has expanded in the last few years by three seminal discoveries. First, PKC activity(More)
The Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is a member of the tryptophan-aspartate repeat (WD-repeat) family of proteins and shares significant homology to the β subunit of G-proteins (Gβ). RACK1 adopts a seven-bladed β-propeller structure which facilitates protein binding. RACK1 has a significant role to play in shuttling proteins around the cell,(More)
We recently identified a novel mechanism for modulation of the phosphorylation state and function of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor via the scaffolding protein RACK1. We found that RACK1 binds both the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase, Fyn. RACK1 inhibits Fyn phosphorylation of NR2B and decreases NMDA(More)
Cocaine-induced plasticity of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in brain adaptations that promote addictive behaviors. However, the mechanisms responsible for triggering these synaptic changes are unknown. Here, we examined the effects of acute cocaine application on glutamatergic synaptic(More)
Alcoholism is a devastating disease that manifests as uncontrolled drinking. Consumption of alcohol is regulated by neurochemical systems within specific neural circuits, but endogenous systems that may counteract and thus suppress the behavioral effects of ethanol intake are unknown. Here we demonstrate that BDNF plays a role in reducing the behavioral(More)
Phosphorylation regulates the function of ligand-gated ion channels such as the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Here we report a mechanism for modulation of the phosphorylation state and function of the NMDA receptor via an inhibitory scaffolding protein, RACK1. We found that RACK1 binds both the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and the nonreceptor(More)
One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with(More)
Alcohol addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder that includes certain maladaptive learning and memory. The serine and threonine kinase complex, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), has been implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory by controlling protein translation. Here we show that administration of alcohol and excessive(More)